Agenda 21

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United Nations Conference on Environment & Development

Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992

AGENDA 21

CONTENTS

Chapter Paragraphs

1. Preamble 1.1 – 1.6

SECTION I. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS

2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related

domestic policies 2.1 – 2.43

3. Combating poverty 3.1 – 3.12

4. Changing consumption patterns 4.1 – 4.27

5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability 5.1 – 5.66

6. Protecting and promoting human health conditions 6.1 – 6.46

7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development 7.1 – 7.80

8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making 8.1 – 8.54

SECTION II. CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES FOR DEVELOPMENT

9. Protection of the atmosphere 9.1 – 9.35

10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources 10.1 – 10.18

11. Combating deforestation 11.1 – 11.40

12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought 12.1 – 12.63

13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development 13.1 – 13.24

14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development 14.1 – 14.104

15. Conservation of biological diversity 15.1 – 15.11

16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology 16.1 – 16.46

17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal

areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 17.1 – 17.136

18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to

the development, management and use of water resources 18.1 – 18.90

19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international

traffic in toxic and dangerous products 19.1 – 19.76

20. Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, in hazardous wastes 20.1 – 20.46

21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues 21.1 – 21.49

22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes 22.1 – 22.9

SECTION III. STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS

23. Preamble 23.1 – 23.4

24. Global action for women towards sustainable and equitable development 24.1 – 24.12

25. Children and youth in sustainable development 25.1 – 25.17

26. Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous people and their communities 26.1 – 26.9

27. Strengthening the role of non-governmental organizations: partners for sustainable development 27.1 – 27.13

28. Local authorities’ initiatives in support of Agenda 21 28.1 – 28.7

29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions 29.1 – 29.14

30. Strengthening the role of business and industry 30.1 – 30.30

31. Scientific and technological community 31.1 – 31.12

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32. Strengthening the role of farmers 32.1 – 32.14

SECTION IV. MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION

33. Financial resources and mechanisms 33.1 – 33.21

34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building 34.1 – 34.29

35. Science for sustainable development 35.1 – 35.25

36. Promoting education, public awareness and training 36.1 – 36.27

37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries 37.1 – 37.13

38. International institutional arrangements 38.1 – 38.45

39. International legal instruments and mechanisms 39.1 – 39.10

40. Information for decision-making 40.1 – 40.30

* * * * *

* Copyright © United Nations Division for Sustainable Development

* For section I (Social and economic dimensions), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I); for section III (Strengthening

the role of major groups) and section IV (Means of implementation), see A.CONF/151/26 (Vol. III).

* For section II (Conservation and management of resources for development), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. II);

for section III (Strengthening the role of major groups) and section IV (Means of implementation), see

A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. III).

* For section I (Social and economic dimensions), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I); for section II (Conservation

and management of resources for development), see A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. II).

Small Island Developing States Network (SIDSnet) has formatted this document for MS-Word from the original version available

for downloading from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) at:

http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/agenda21.htm. Reproduction and dissemination of the document – in electronic and/or

printed format – is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 1

PREAMBLE

1.1. Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. We are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities

between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the

continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. However,

integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the

fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems

and a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but together we can – in a

global partnership for sustainable development.

1.2. This global partnership must build on the premises of General Assembly resolution 44/228 of 22

December 1989, which was adopted when the nations of the world called for the United Nations

Conference on Environment and Development, and on the acceptance of the need to take a balanced

and integrated approach to environment and development questions.

1.3. Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the

challenges of the next century. It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest

level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost

the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in

achieving this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this

context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and subregional

organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the

active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be

encouraged.

1.4. The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 will require a substantial flow of new

and additional financial resources to developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for

the actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate

sustainable development. Financial resources are also required for strengthening the capacity of

international institutions for the implementation of Agenda 21. An indicative order-of-magnitude

assessment of costs is included in each of the programme areas. This assessment will need to be

examined and refined by the relevant implementing agencies and organizations.

1.5. In the implementation of the relevant programme areas identified in Agenda 21, special attention

should be given to the particular circumstances facing the economies in transition. It must also be

recognized that these countries are facing unprecedented challenges in transforming their economies,

in some cases in the midst of considerable social and political tension.

1.6. The programme areas that constitute Agenda 21 are described in terms of the basis for action,

objectives, activities and means of implementation. Agenda 21 is a dynamic programme. It will be

carried out by the various actors according to the different situations, capacities and priorities of

countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on

Environment and Development. It could evolve over time in the light of changing needs and

circumstances. This process marks the beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable

development.

* * * * *

* When the term “Governments” is used, it will be deemed to include the European Economic Community within its

areas of competence. Throughout Agenda 21 the term “environmentally sound” means “environmentally safe and

sound”, in particular when applied to the terms “energy sources”, “energy supplies”, “energy systems” and “technology”

or “technologies”.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 2

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC

POLICIES

2.1. In order to meet the challenges of environment and development, States have decided to establish a

new global partnership. This partnership commits all States to engage in a continuous and constructive

dialogue, inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world economy, keeping in

view the increasing interdependence of the community of nations and that sustainable development

should become a priority item on the agenda of the international community. It is recognized that, for

the success of this new partnership, it is important to overcome confrontation and to foster a climate of

genuine cooperation and solidarity. It is equally important to strengthen national and international

policies and multinational cooperation to adapt to the new realities.

2.2. Economic policies of individual countries and international economic relations both have great

relevance to sustainable development. The reactivation and acceleration of development requires both

a dynamic and a supportive international economic environment and determined policies at the

national level. It will be frustrated in the absence of either of these requirements. A supportive external

economic environment is crucial. The development process will not gather momentum if the global

economy lacks dynamism and stability and is beset with uncertainties. Neither will it gather

momentum if the developing countries are weighted down by external indebtedness, if development

finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if commodity prices and the terms of

trade of developing countries remain depressed. The record of the 1980s was essentially negative on

each of these counts and needs to be reversed. The policies and measures needed to create an

international environment that is strongly supportive of national development efforts are thus vital.

International cooperation in this area should be designed to complement and support – not to diminish

or subsume – sound domestic economic policies, in both developed and developing countries, if global

progress towards sustainable development is to be achieved.

2.3. The international economy should provide a supportive international climate for achieving

environment and development goals by:

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Promoting sustainable development through trade Basis for action

2.5. An open, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable multilateral trading system that is

consistent with the goals of sustainable development and leads to the optimal distribution of global

production in accordance with comparative advantage is of benefit to all trading partners. Moreover,

improved market access for developing countries’ exports in conjunction with sound macroeconomic

and environmental policies would have a positive environmental impact and therefore make an

important contribution towards sustainable development.

2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a commitment to sound economic

policies and management, an effective and predictable public administration, the integration of

environmental concerns into decision-making and progress towards democratic government, in the

light of country-specific conditions, which allows for full participation of all parties concerned. These

attributes are essential for the fulfilment of the policy directions and objectives listed below.

2.7. The commodity sector dominates the economies of many developing countries in terms of production,

employment and export earnings. An important feature of the world commodity economy in the 1980s

was the prevalence of very low and declining real prices for most commodities in international markets

and a resulting substantial contraction in commodity export earnings for many producing countries.

The ability of those countries to mobilize, through international trade, the resources needed to finance

investments required for sustainable development may be impaired by this development and by tariff

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and non-tariff impediments, including tariff escalation, limiting their access to export markets. The

removal of existing distortions in international trade is essential. In particular, the achievement of this

objective requires that there be substantial and progressive reduction in the support and protection of

agriculture – covering internal regimes, market access and export subsidies – as well as of industry and

other sectors, in order to avoid inflicting large losses on the more efficient producers, especially in

developing countries. Thus, in agriculture, industry and other sectors, there is scope for initiatives

aimed at trade liberalization and at policies to make production more responsive to environment and

development needs. Trade liberalization should therefore be pursued on a global basis across economic

sectors so as to contribute to sustainable develop ment.

2.8. The international trading environment has been affected by a number of developments that have

created new challenges and opportunities and have made multilateral economic cooperation of even

greater importance. World trade has continued to grow faster than world output in recent years.

However, the expansion of world trade has been unevenly spread, and only a limited number of

developing countries have been capable of achieving appreciable growth in their exports. Protectionist

pressures and unilateral policy actions continue to endanger the functioning of an open multilateral

trading system, affecting particularly the export interests of developing countries. Economic

integration processes have intensified in recent years and should impart dynamism to global trade and

enhance the trade and development possibilities for developing countries. In recent years, a growing

number of these countries have adopted courageous policy reforms involving ambitious autonomous

trade liberalization, while far-reaching reforms and profound restructuring processes are taking place

in Central and Eastern European countries, paving the way for their integration into the world economy

and the international trading system. Increased attention is being devoted to enhancing the role of

enterprises and promoting competitive markets through adoption of competitive policies. The GSP has

proved to be a useful trade policy instrument, although its objectives will have to be fulfilled, and trade

facilitation strategies relating to electronic data interchange (EDI) have been effective in improving the

trading efficiency of the public and private sectors. The interactions between environment policies and

trade issues are manifold and have not yet been fully assessed. An early, balanced, comprehensive and

successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations would bring about further

liberalization and expansion of world trade, enhance the trade and development possibilities of

developing countries and provide greater security and predictability to the international trading system.

Objectives

2.9. In the years ahead, and taking into account the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade

negotiations, Governments should continue to strive to meet the following objectives:

a. To promote an open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system that

will enable all countries – in particular, the developing countries – to improve their

economic structures and improve the standard of living of their populations through

sustained economic development;

b. To improve access to markets for exports of developing countries;

c. To improve the functioning of commodity markets and achieve sound, compatible and

consistent commodity policies at national and international levels with a view to

optimizing the contribution of the commodity sector to sustainable development, taking

into account environmental considerations;

d. To promote and support policies, domestic and international, that make economic growth

and environmental protection mutually supportive.

Activities

(a) International and regional cooperation and coordination Promoting an international trading

system that takes account of the needs of developing countries

2.10. Accordingly, the international community should:

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a. Halt and reverse protectionism in order to bring about further liberalization and

expansion of world trade, to the benefit of all countries, in particular the developing

countries;

b. Provide for an equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable international

trading system;

c. Facilitate, in a timely way, the integration of all countries into the world economy

and the international trading system;

d. Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutually supportive, with a view to

achieving sustainable development;

e. Strengthen the international trade policies system through an early, balanced,

comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade

negotiations.

2.11. The international community should aim at finding ways and means of achieving a better

functioning and enhanced transparency of commodity markets, greater diversification of the

commodity sector in developing economies within a macroeconomic framework that takes into

consideration a country’s economic structure, resource endowments and market opportunities, and

better management of natural resources that takes into account the necessities of sustainable

development.

2.12. Therefore, all countries should implement previous commitments to halt and reverse protectionism

and further expand market access, particularly in areas of interest to developing countries. This

improvement of market access will be facilitated by appropriate structural adjustment in developed

countries. Developing countries should continue the trade-policy reforms and structural adjustment

they have undertaken. It is thus urgent to achieve an improvement in market access conditions for

commodities, notably through the progressive removal of barriers that restrict imports, particularly

from developing countries, of commodity products in primary and processed forms, as well as the

substantial and progressive reduction of types of support that induce uncompetitive production, such as

production and export subsidies. (b) Management related activities Developing domestic policies that

maximize the benefits of trade liberalization for sustainable development

2.13. For developing countries to benefit from the liberalization of trading systems, they should

implement the following policies, as appropriate:

a. Create a domestic environment supportive of an optimal balance between

production for the domestic and export markets and remove biases against

exports and discourage inefficient import-substitution;

b. Promote the policy framework and the infrastructure required to improve

the efficiency of export and import trade as well as the functioning of

domestic markets.

2.14. The following policies should be adopted by developing countries with respect to commodities

consistent with market efficiency:

a. Expand processing, distribution and imp rove marketing practices and the

competitiveness of the commodity sector;

b. Diversify in order to reduce dependence on commodity exports;

c. Reflect efficient and sustainable use of factors of production in the

formation of commodity prices, including the reflection of environmental,

social and resources costs.

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(c) Data and information

Encouraging data collection and research

2.15. GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant institutions should continue to collect appropriate trade data

and information. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is requested to strengthen the Trade

Control Measures Information System managed by UNCTAD.

Improving international cooperation in commodity trade and the diversification of the sector

2.16. With regard to commodity trade, Governments should, directly or through appropriate

international organizations, where appropriate:

a. Seek optimal functioning of commodity markets, inter alia,

through improved market transparency involving exchanges of

views and information on investment plans, prospects and markets

for individual commodities. Substantive negotiations between

producers and consumers should be pursued with a view to

achieving viable and more efficient international agreements that

take into account market trends, or arrangements, as well as study

groups. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the

agreements on cocoa, coffee, sugar and tropical timber. The

importance of international commodity agreements and

arrangements is underlined. Occupational health and safety

matters, technology transfer and services associated with the

production, marketing and promotion of commodities, as well as

environmental considerations, should be taken into account;

b. Continue to apply compensation mechanisms for shortfalls in

commodity export earnings of developing countries in order to

encourage diversification efforts;

c. Provide assistance to developing countries upon request in the

design and implementation of commodity policies and the

gathering and utilization of information on commodity markets;

d. Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy

framework and infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of

export and import trade;

e. Support the diversification initiatives of the developing countries at

the national, regional and international levels.

Means of implementation

a. Financing and cost evaluation

2.17. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities in this programme area to be about $8.8 billion from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only

and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are

non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments

decide upon for implementation.

b. Capacity-building 2.18. The above-mentioned technical cooperation activities aim at strengthening

national capabilities for design and implementation of commodity policy, use and management of

national resources and the gathering and utilization of information on commodity markets.

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B. Making trade and environment mutually supportive Basis for action

2.19. Environment and trade policies should be mutually supportive. An open, multilateral trading

system makes possible a more efficient allocation and use of resources and thereby contributes to an

increase in production and incomes and to lessening demands on the environment. It thus provides

additional resources needed for economic growth and development and improved environmental

protection. A sound environment, on the other hand, provides the ecological and other resources

needed to sustain growth and underpin a continuing expansion of trade. An open, multilateral trading

system, supported by the adoption of sound environmental policies, would have a positive impact on

the environment and contribute to sustainable development.

2.20. International cooperation in the environmental field is growing, and in a number of cases trade

provisions in multilateral environment agreements have played a role in tackling global environmental

challenges. Trade measures have thus been used in certain specific instances, where considered

necessary, to enhance the effectiveness of environmental regulations for the protection of the

environment. Such regulations should address the root causes of environmental degradation so as not

to result in unjustified restrictions on trade. The challenge is to ensure that trade and environment

policies are consistent and reinforce the process of sustainable development. However, account should

be taken of the fact that environmental standards valid for developed countries may have unwarranted

social and economic costs in developing countries.

Objectives

2.21. Governments should strive to meet the following objectives, through relevant multilateral forums,

including GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizations:

a. To make international trade and environment policies mutually supportive in favour of

sustainable development;

b. To clarify the role of GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizations in dealing

with trade and environment-related issues, including, where relevant, conciliation

procedure and dispute settlement;

c. To encourage international productivity and competitiveness and encourage a

constructive role on the part of industry in dealing with environment and development

issues.

Activities

Developing an environment/trade and development agenda

2.22. Governments should encourage GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant international and regional

economic institutions to examine, in accordance with their respective mandates and competences, the

following propositions and principles:

a. Elaborate adequate studies for the better understanding of the relationship between trade

and environment for the promotion of sustainable development;

b. Promote a dialogue between trade, development and environment communities;

c. In those cases when trade measures related to environment are used, ensure transparency

and compatibility with international obligations;

d. Deal with the root causes of environment and development problems in a manner that

avoids the adoption of environmental measures resulting in unjustified restrictions on

trade;

e. Seek to avoid the use of trade restrictions or distortions as a means to offset differences in

cost arising from differences in environmental standards and regulations, since their

application could lead to trade distortions and increase protectionist tendencies;

f. Ensure that environment-related regulations or standards, including those related to

health and safety standards, do not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable

discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade;

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g. Ensure that special factors affecting environment and trade policies in t he developing

countries are borne in mind in the application of environmental standards, as well as in

the use of any trade measures. It is worth noting that standards that are valid in the most

advanced countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the

developing countries;

h. Encourage participation of developing countries in multilateral agreements through such

mechanisms as special transitional rules;

i. Avoid unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of

the importing country. Environmental measures addressing transborder or global

environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international

consensus. Domestic measures targeted to achieve certain environmental objectives may

need trade measures to render them effective. Should trade policy measures be found

necessary for the enforcement of environmental policies, certain principles and rules

should apply. These could include, inter alia, the principle of non-discrimination; the

principle that the trade measure chosen should be the least trade-restrictive necessary to

achieve the objectives; an obligation to ensure transparency in the use of trade measures

related to the environment and to provide adequate notification of national regulations;

and the need to give consideration to the special conditions and developmental

requirements of developing countries as they move towards internationally agreed

environmental objectives;

j. Develop more precision, where necessary, and clarify the relationship between GATT

provisions and some of the multilateral measures adopted in the environment area;

k. Ensure public input in the formation, negotiation and implementation of trade policies as

a means of fostering increased transparency in the light of country-specific conditions;

l. Ensure that environmental policies provide the appropriate legal and institutional

framework to respond to new needs for the protection of the environment that may result

from changes in production and trade specialization.

C. Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries

Basis for action

2.23. Investment is critical to the ability of developing countries to achieve needed economic growth to

improve the welfare of their populations and to meet their basic needs in a sustainable manner, all

without deteriorating or depleting the resource base that underpins development. Sustainable

development requires increased investment, for which domestic and external financial resources are

needed. Foreign private investment and the return of flight capital, which depend on a healthy

investment climate, are an important source of financial resources. Many developing countries have

experienced a decade-long situation of negative net transfer of financial resources, during which their

financial receipts were exceeded by payments they had to make, in particular for debt-servicing. As a

result, domestically mobilized resources had to be transferred abroad instead of being invested locally

in order to promote sustainable economic development.

2.24. For many developing countries, the reactivation of development will not take place without an

early and durable solution to the problems of external indebtedness, taking into account the fact that,

for many developing countries, external debt burdens are a significant problem. The burden of debt- service payments on those countries has imposed severe constraints on their ability to accelerate

growth and eradicate poverty and has led to a contraction in imports, investment and consumption.

External indebtedness has emerged as a main factor in the economic stalemate in the developing

countries. Continued vigorous implementation of the evolving international debt strategy is aimed at

restoring debtor countries’ external financial viability, and the resumption of their growth and

development would assist in achieving sustainable growth and development. In this context, additional

financial resources in favour of developing countries and the efficient utilization of such resources are

essential.

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Objectives

2.25. The specific requirements for the implementation of the sectoral and cross-sectoral programmes

included in Agenda 21 are dealt with in the relevant programme areas and in chapter 33 (Financial

resources and mechanisms).

Activities

(a) Meeting international targets of official development assistance funding

2.26. As discussed in chapter 33, new and additional resources should be provided to support Agenda

21 programmes.

(b) Addressing the debt issue

2.27. In regard to the external debt incurred with commercial banks, the progress being made under the

strengthened debt strategy is recognized and a more rapid implementation of this strategy is

encouraged. Some countries have already benefited from the combination of sound adjustment policies

and commercial bank debt reduction or equivalent measures. The international community

encourages:

a. Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiate similar commercial bank debt

reduction with their creditors;

b. The parties to such a negotiation to take due account of both the medium-term debt

reduction and new money requirements of the debtor country;

c. Multilateral institutions actively engaged in the strengthened international debt strategy to

continue to support debt-reduction packages related to commercial bank debt with a view

to ensuring that the magnitude of such financing is consonant with the evolving debt

strategy;

d. Creditor banks to participate in debt and debt-service reduction;

e. Strengthened policies to attract direct investment, avoid unsustainable levels of debt and

foster the return of flight capital.

2.28. With regard to debt owed to official bilateral creditors, the recent measures taken by the Paris

Club with regard to more generous terms of relief to the poorest most indebted countries are

welcomed. Ongoing efforts to implement these “Trinidad terms” measures in a manner commensurate

with the payments capacity of those countries and in a way that gives additional support to their

economic reform efforts are welcomed. The substantial bilateral debt reduction undertaken by some

creditor countries is also welcomed, and others which are in a position to do so are encouraged to take

similar action.

2.29. The actions of low-income countries with substantial debt burdens which continue, at great cost,

to service their debt and safeguard their creditworthiness are commended. Particular attention should

be paid to their resource needs. Other debt-distressed developing countries which are making great

efforts to continue to service their debt and meet their external financial obligations also deserve due

attention.

2.30. In connection with multilateral debt, it is urged that serious attention be given to continuing to

work towards growth-oriented solutions to the problem of developing countries with serious debt- servicing problems, including those whose debt is mainly to official creditors or to multilateral

financial institutions. Particularly in the case of low-income countries in the process of economic

reform, the support of the multilateral financial institutions in the form of new disbursements and the

use of their concessional funds is welcomed. The use of support groups should be continued in

providing resources to clear arrears of countries embarking upon vigorous economic reform

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programmes supported by IMF and t he World Bank. Measures by the multilateral financial institutions

such as the refinancing of interest on non-concessional loans with IDA reflows – “fifth dimension” –

are noted with appreciation.

Means of implementation

Financing and cost evaluation*

D. Encouraging economic policies conducive to sustainable development

Basis for action

2.31. The unfavourable external environment facing developing countries makes domestic resource

mobilization and efficient allocation and utilization of domestically mobilized resources all the more

important for the promotion of sustainable development. In a number of countries, policies are

necessary to correct misdirected public spending, large budget deficits and other macroeconomic

imbalances, restrictive policies and distortions in the areas of exchange rates, investment and finance,

and obstacles to entrepreneurship. In developed countries, continuing policy reform and adjustment,

including appropriate savings rates, would help generate resources to support the transition to

sustainable development both domestically and in developing countries.

* * * * *

* See chap. 33 (Financial resources and mechanisms).

* * * * *

2.32. Good management that fosters the association of effective, efficient, honest, equitable and

accountable public administration with individual rights and opportunities is an essential element for

sustainable, broadly based development and sound economic performance at all development levels.

All countries should increase their efforts to eradicate mismanagement of public and private affairs,

including corruption, taking into account the factors responsible for, and agents involved in, this

phenomenon.

2.33. Many indebted developing countries are undergoing structural adjustment programmes relating to

debt rescheduling or new loans. While such programmes are necessary for improving the balance in

fiscal budgets and balance-of-payments accounts, in some cases they have resulted in adverse social

and environmental effects, such as cuts in allocations for health care, education and environmental

protection. It is important to ensure that structural adjustment programmes do not have negative

impacts on the environment and social development so that such programmes can be more in line with

the objectives of sustainable development.

Objectives

2.34. It is necessary to establish, in the light of the country-specific conditions, economic policy reforms

that promote the efficient planning and utilization of resources for sustainable development through

sound economic and social policies, foster entrepreneurship and the incorporation of social and

environmental costs in resource pricing, and remove sources of distortion in the area of trade and

investment.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

Promoting sound economic policies

2.35. The industrialized countries and other countries in a position to do so should strengthen their efforts:

a. To encourage a stable and predictable international economic environment, particularly with

regard to monetary stability, real rates of interest and fluctuations in key exchange rates;

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b. To stimulate savings and reduce fiscal deficits;

c. To ensure that the processes of policy coordination take into account the interests and concerns of

the developing countries, including the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of

the least developed countries to halt their marginalization in the world economy;

d. To undertake appropriate national macroeconomic and structural policies aimed at promoting non- inflationary growth, narrowing their major external imbalances and increasing the adjustment

capacity of their economies.

2.36. Developing countries should consider strengthening their efforts to implement sound economic

policies:

a. That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline required to promote price stability and external

balance;

b. That result in realistic exchange rates;

c. That raise domestic savings and investment, as well as improve returns to investment.

2.37. More specifically, all countries should develop policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of

resources and take full advantage of the opportunities offered by the changing global economic

environment. In particular, wherever appropriate, and taking into account national strategies and

objectives, countries should:

a. Remove the barriers to progress caused by bureaucratic inefficiencies, administrative strains,

unnecessary controls and the neglect of market conditions;

b. Promote transparency in administration and decision-making;

c. Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship by improving institutional facilities for

enterprise creation and market entry. The essential objective would be to simplify or remove the

restrictions, regulations and formalities that make it more complicated, costly and time-consuming

to set up and operate enterprises in many developing countries;

d. Promote and support the investment and infrastructure required for sustainable economic growth

and diversification on an environmentally sound and sustainable basis;

e. Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments, including market mechanisms, in harmony

with the objectives of sustainable development and fulfilment of basic needs;

f. Promote the operation of effective tax systems and financial sectors;

g. Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises, both farm and non-farm, and for the indigenous

population and local communities to contribute fully to the attainment of sustainable development;

h. Remove biases against exports and in favour of inefficient import substitution and establish

policies that allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign investment, within the

framework of national, social, economic and developmental goals;

i. Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive of an optimal balance

between production for the domestic and export markets.

(b) International and regional cooperation and coordination

2.38. Governments of developed countries and those of other countries in a position to do so should,

directly or through appropriate international and regional organizations and international lending

institutions, enhance their efforts to provide developing countries with increased technical assistance

for the following:

a. Capacity-building in the nation’s design and implementation of economic policies, upon request;

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b. Design and operation of efficient tax systems, accounting systems and financial sectors;

(c) Promotion of entrepreneurship.

2.39. International financial and development institutions should further review their policies and

programmes in the light of the objective of sustainable development.

2.40. Stronger economic cooperation among developing countries has long been accepted as an

important component of efforts to promote economic growth and technological capabilities and to

accelerate development in the developing world. Therefore, the efforts of the developing countries to

promote economic cooperation among themselves should be enhanced and continue to be supported

by the international community.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

2.41. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities in this programme area to be about $50 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Capacity-building

2.42. The above-mentioned policy changes in developing countries involve substantial national efforts

for capacity-building in the areas of public administration, central banking, tax administration, savings

institutions and financial markets.

2.43. Particular efforts in the implementation of the four programme areas identified in this chapter are

warranted in view of the especially acute environmental and developmental problems of the least

developed countries.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 3

COMBATING POVERTY

PROGRAMME AREA

Enabling the poor to achieve sustainable livelihoods

Basis for action

3.1. Poverty is a complex multidimensional problem with origins in both the national and international

domains. No uniform solution can be found for global application. Rather, country-specific

programmes to tackle poverty and international efforts supporting national efforts, as well as the

parallel process of creating a supportive international environment, are crucial for a solution to this

problem. The eradication of poverty and hunger, greater equity in income distribution and human

resource development remain major challenges everywhere. The struggle against poverty is the shared

responsibility of all countries.

3.2. While managing resources sustainably, an environmental policy that focuses mainly on the

conservation and protection of resources must take due account of those who depend on the resources

for their livelihoods. Otherwise it could have an adverse impact both on poverty and on chances for

long-term success in resource and environmental conservation. Equally, a development policy that

focuses mainly on increasing the production of goods without addressing the sustainability of the

resources on which production is based will sooner or later run into declining productivity, which

could also have an adverse impact on poverty. A specific anti-poverty strategy is therefore one of the

basic conditions for ensuring sustainable development. An effective strategy for tackling the problems

of poverty, development and environment simultaneously should begin by focusing on resources,

production and people and should cover demographic issues, enhanced health care and education, the

rights of women, the role of youth and of indigenous people and local communities and a democratic

participation process in association with improved governance.

3.3. Integral to such action is, together with international support, the promotion of economic growth in

developing countries that is both sustained and sustainable and direct action in eradicating poverty by

strengthening employment and income-generating programmes.

Objectives

3.4. The long-term objective of enabling all people to achieve sustainable livelihoods should provide an

integrating factor that allows policies to address issues of development, sustainable resource

management and poverty eradication simultaneously. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To provide all persons urgently with the opportunity to earn a sustainable livelihood;

b. To implement policies and strategies that promote adequate levels of funding and focus on

integrated human development policies, including income generation, increased local control

of resources, local institution-strengthening and capacity-building and greater involvement of

non-governmental organizations and local levels of government as delivery mechanisms;

c. To develop for all poverty-stricken areas integrated strategies and programmes of sound and

sustainable management of the environment, resource mobilization, poverty eradication and

alleviation, employment and income generation;

d. To create a focus in national development plans and budgets on investment in human capital,

with special policies and programmes directed at rural areas, the urban poor, women and

children. Activities

3.5. Activities that will contribute to the integrated promotion of sustainable livelihoods and environmental

protection cover a variety of sectoral interventions involving a range of actors, from local to global,

and are essential at every level, especially the community and local levels. Enabling actions will be

necessary at the national and international levels, taking full account of regional and subregional

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conditions to support a locally driven and country-specific approach. In general design, the

programmes should:

a. Focus on the empowerment of local and community groups through the principle of

delegating authority, accountability and resources to the most appropriate level to ensure that

the programme will be geographically and ecologically specific;

b. Contain immediate measures to enable those groups to alleviate poverty and to develop

sustainability;

c. Contain a long-term strategy aimed at establishing the best possible conditions for sustainable

local, regional and national development that would eliminate poverty and reduce the

inequalities between various population groups. It should assist the most disadvantaged

groups – in particular, women, children and youth within those groups – and refugees. The

groups will include poor smallholders, pastoralists, artisans, fishing communities, landless

people, indigenous communities, migrants and the urban informal sector.

3.6. The focus here is on specific cross-cutting measures – in particular, in the areas of basic education,

primary/maternal health care, and the advancement of women.

(a) Empowering communities

3.7. Sustainable development must be achieved at every level of society. Peoples’ organizations, women’s

groups and non-governmental organizations are important sources of innovation and action at the local

level and have a strong interest and proven ability to promote sustainable livelihoods. Governments, in

cooperation with appropriate international and non-governmental organizations, should support a

community-driven approach to sustainability, which would include, inter alia:

a. Empowering women through full participation in decision-making;

b. Respecting the cultural integrity and the rights of indigenous people and their communities;

c. Promoting or establishing grass-roots mechanisms to allow for the sharing of experience and

knowledge between communities;

d. Giving communities a large measure of participation in the sustainable management and

protection of the local natural resources in order to enhance their productive capacity;

e. Establishing a network of community-based learning centres for capacity-building and

sustainable development.

(b) Management-related activities

3.8. Governments, with the assistance of and in cooperation with appropriate international, non- governmental and local community organizations, should establish measures that will directly or

indirectly:

a. Generate remunerative employment and productive occupational opportunities compatible

with country-specific factor endowments, on a scale sufficient to take care of prospective

increases in the labour force and to cover backlogs;

b. With international support, where necessary, develop adequate infrastructure, marketing

systems, technology systems, credit systems and the like and the human resources needed to

support the above actions and to achieve a widening of options for resource-poor people. High

priority should be given to basic education and professional training;

c. Provide substantial increases in economically efficient resource productivity and measures to

ensure that the local population benefits in adequate measure from resource use;

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d. Empower community organizations and people to enable them to achieve sustainable

livelihoods;

e. Set up an effective primary health care and maternal health care system accessible to all;

f. Consider strengthening/developing legal frameworks for land management, access to land

resources and land ownership – in particular, for women – and for the protection of tenants;

g. Rehabilitate degraded resources, to the extent practicable, and introduce policy measures to

promote sustainable use of resources for basic human needs;

h. Establish new community-based mechanisms and strengthen existing mechanisms to enable

communities to gain sustained access to resources needed by the poor to overcome their

poverty;

i. Implement mechanisms for popular participation – particularly by poor people, especially

women – in local community groups, to promote sustainable development;

j. Implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with country-specific conditions and legal

systems, measures to ensure that women and men have the same right to decide freely and

responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and have access to the information,

education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise this right in keep ing with

their freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and cultural

considerations. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to establish

and strengthen preventive and curative health facilities, which include women-centred,

women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible

services, as appropriate, for the responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom,

dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and cultural considerations.

Programmes should focus on providing comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care,

education and information on health and responsible parenthood and should provide the

opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least during the first four months post- partum. Programmes should fully support women’s productive and reproductive roles and

well-being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and improved health care for

all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness;

k. Adopt integrated policies aiming at sustainability in the management of urban centres;

l. Undertake activities aimed at the promotion of food security and, where appropriate, food

self-sufficiency within the context of sustainable agriculture;

m. Support research on and integration of traditional methods of production that have been

shown to be environmentally sustainable;

n. Actively seek to recognize and integrate informal-sector activities into the economy by

removing regulations and hindrances that discriminate against activities in those sectors;

o. Consider making available lines of credit and other facilities for the informal sector and

improved access to land for the landless poor so that they can acquire the means of production

and reliable access to natural resources. In many instances special considerations for women

are required. Strict feasibility appraisals are needed for borrowers to avoid debt crises;

p. Provide the poor with access to fresh water and sanitation;

q. Provide the poor with access to primary education.

(c) Data, information and evaluation

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3.9. Governments should improve the collection of information on target groups and target areas in order

to facilitate the design of focused programmes and activities, consistent with the target-group needs

and aspirations. Evaluation of such programmes should be gender-specific, since women are a

particularly disadvantaged group.

(d) International and regional cooperation and coordination

3.10. The United Nations system, through its relevant organs, organizations and bodies, in cooperation

with Member States and with appropriate international and non-governmental organizations, should

make poverty alleviation a major priority and should:

a. Assist Governments, when requested, in the formulation and implementation of national

action programmes on poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Action-oriented

activities of relevance to the above objectives, such as poverty eradication, projects and

programmes supplemented where relevant by food aid, and support and special emphasis on

employment and income generation, should be given particular attention in this regard;

b. Promote technical cooperation among developing countries for poverty eradication activities;

c. Strengthen existing structures in the United Nations system for coordination of action relating

to poverty eradication, including the establishment of a focal point for information exchange

and the formulation and implementation of replicable pilot projects to combat poverty;

d. In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21, give high priority to the review of the

progress made in eradicating poverty;

e. Examine the international economic framework, including resource flows and structural

adjustment programmes, to ensure that social and environmental concerns are addressed, and

in this connection, conduct a review of the policies of international organizations, bodies and

agencies, including financial institutions, to ensure the continued provision of basic services

to the poor and needy;

f. Promote international cooperation to address the root causes of poverty. The development

process will not gather momentum if developing countries are weighted down by external

indebtedness, if development finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if

commodity prices and the terms of trade in developing countries remain depressed.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

3.11. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $30 billion, including about $15 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. This estimate overlaps

estimates in other parts of Agenda 21. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non- concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide

upon for implementation.

(b) Capacity-building

3.12. National capacity-building for implementation of the above activities is crucial and should be

given high priority. It is particularly important to focus capacity-building at the local community level

in order to support a community-driven approach to sustainability and to establish and strengthen

mechanisms to allow sharing of experience and knowledge between community groups at national and

international levels. Requirements for such activities are considerable and are related to the various

relevant sectors of Agenda 21 calling for requisite international, financial and technological support.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 4

CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

4.1. This chapter contains the following programme areas:

a. Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption;

b. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable

consumption patterns.

4.2. Since the issue of changing consumption patterns is very broad, it is addressed in several parts of

Agenda 21, notably those dealing with energy, transportation and wastes, and in the chapters on

economic instruments and the transfer of technology. The present chapter should also be read in

conjunction with chapter 5 (Demographic dynamics and sustainability).

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Focusing on unsustainable patterns of production and consumption

Basis for action

4.3. Poverty and environmental degradation are closely interrelated. While poverty results in certain kinds

of environmental stress, the major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the

unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is

a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances.

4.4. Measures to be undertaken at the international level for the protection and enhancement of the

environment must take fully into account the current imbalances in the global patterns of consumption

and production.

4.5. Special attention should be paid to the demand for natural resources generated by unsustainable

consumption and to the efficient use of those resources consistent with the goal of minimizing

depletion and reducing pollution. Although consumption patterns are very high in certain parts of the

world, the basic consumer needs of a large section of humanity are not being met. This results in

excessive demands and unsustainable lifestyles among the richer segments, which place immense

stress on the environment. The poorer segments, meanwhile, are unable to meet food, health care,

shelter and educational needs. Changing consumption patterns will require a multipronged strategy

focusing on demand, meeting the basic needs of the poor, and reducing wastage and the use of finite

resources in the production process.

4.6. Growing recognition of the importance of addressing consumption has also not yet been matched by

an understanding of its implications. Some economists are questioning traditional concepts of

economic growth and underlining the importance of pursuing economic objectives that take account of

the full value of natural resource capital. More needs to be known about the role of consumption in

relation to economic growth and population dynamics in order to formulate coherent international and

national policies.

Objectives

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4.7. Action is needed to meet the following broad objectives:

a. To promote patterns of consumption and production that reduce environmental stress and will

meet the basic needs of humanity;

b. To develop a better understanding of the role of consumption and how to bring about more

sustainable consumption patterns.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

Adopting an international approach to achieving sustainable consumption patterns

4.8. In principle, countries should be guided by the following basic objectives in their efforts to address

consumption and lifestyles in the context of environment and development:

a. All countries should strive to promote sustainable consumption patterns;

b. Developed countries should take the lead in achieving sustainable consumption patterns;

c. Developing countries should seek to achieve sustainable consumption patterns in their

development process, guaranteeing the provision of basic needs for the poor, while

avoiding those unsustainable patterns, particularly in industrialized countries, generally

recognized as unduly hazardous to the environment, inefficient and wasteful, in their

development processes. This requires enhanced technological and other assistance from

industrialized countries.

4.9. In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21 the review of progress made in achieving

sustainable consumption patterns should be given high priority.

(b) Data and information

Undertaking research on consumption

4.10. In order to support this broad strategy, Governments, and/or private research and policy institutes,

with the assistance of regional and international economic and environmental organizations, should

make a concerted effort to:

a. Expand or promote databases on production and consumption and develop methodologies

for analysing them;

b. Assess the relationship between production and consumption, environment, technological

adaptation and innovation, economic growth and development, and demographic factors;

c. Examine the impact of ongoing changes in the structure of modern industrial economies

away from material-intensive economic growth;

d. Consider how economies can grow and prosper while reducing the use of energy and

materials and the production of harmful materials;

e. Identify balanced patterns of consumption worldwide which the Earth can support in the

long term.

Developing new concepts of sustainable economic growth and prosperity

4.11. Consideration should also be given to the present concepts of economic growth and the need for

new concepts of wealth and prosperity which allow higher standards of living through changed

lifestyles and are less dependent on the Earth’s finite resources and more in harmony with the Earth’s

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carrying capacity. This should be reflected in the evolution of new systems of national accounts and

other indicators of sustainable development.

(c) International cooperation and coordination

4.12. While international review processes exist for examining economic, development and

demographic factors, more attention needs to be paid to issues related to consumption and production

patterns and sustainable lifestyles and environment.

4.13. In the follow-up of the implementation of Agenda 21, reviewing the role and impact of

unsustainable production and consumption patterns and lifestyles and their relation to sustainable

development should be given high priority.

Financing and cost evaluation

4.14. The Conference secretariat has estimated that implementation of this programme is not likely to

require significant new financial resources.

B. Developing national policies and strategies to encourage changes in unsustainable consumption

patterns

Basis for action

4.15. Achieving the goals of environmental quality and sustainable development will require efficiency

in production and changes in consumption patterns in order to emphasize optimization of resource use

and minimization of waste. In many instances, this will require reorientation of existing production

and consumption patterns that have developed in industrial societies and are in turn emulated in much

of the world.

4.16. Progress can be made by strengthening positive trends and directions that are emerging, as part of

a process aimed at achieving significant changes in the consumption patterns of industries,

Governments, households and individuals.

Objectives

4.17. In the years ahead, Governments, working with appropriate organizations, should strive to meet

the following broad objectives:

a. To promote efficiency in production processes and reduce wasteful consumption in the

process of economic growth, taking into account the development needs of developing

countries;

b. To develop a domestic policy framework that will encourage a shift to more sustainable

patterns of production and consumption;

c. To reinforce both values that encourage sustainable production and consumption patterns

and policies that encourage the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to

developing countries.

Activities

(a) Encouraging greater efficiency in the use of energy and resources

4.18. Reducing the amount of energy and materials used per unit in the production of goods and

services can contribute both to the alleviation of environmental stress and to greater economic and

industrial productivity and competitiveness. Governments, in cooperation with industry, should

therefore intensify efforts to use energy and resources in an economically efficient and

environmentally sound manner by:

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a. Encouraging the dissemination of existing environmentally sound technologies;

b. Promoting research and development in environmentally sound technologies;

c. Assisting developing countries to use these technologies efficiently and to develop

technologies suited to their particular circumstances;

d. Encouraging the environmentally sound use of new and renewable sources of

energy;

e. Encouraging the environmentally sound and sustainable use of renewable natural

resources.

(b) Minimizing the generation of wastes

4.19. At the same time, society needs to develop effective ways of dealing with the problem of

disposing of mounting levels of waste products and materials. Governments, together with industry,

households and the public, should make a concerted effort to reduce the generation of wastes and

waste products by:

a. Encouraging recycling in industrial processes and at the consumed level;

b. Reducing wasteful packaging of products;

c. Encouraging the introduction of more environmentally sound products.

(c) Assisting individuals and households to make environmentally sound purchasing decisions

4.20. The recent emergence in many countries of a more environmentally conscious consumer public,

combined with increased interest on the part of some industries in providing environmentally sound

consumer products, is a significant development that should be encouraged. Governments and

international organizations, together with the private sector, should develop criteria and methodologies

for the assessment of environmental impacts and resource requirements throughout the full life cycle

of products and processes. Results of those assessments should be transformed into clear indicators in

order to inform consumers and decision makers.

4.21. Governments, in cooperation with industry and other relevant groups, should encourage expansion

of environmental labelling and other environmentally related product information programmes

designed to assist consumers to make informed choices.

4.22. They should also encourage the emergence of an informed consumer public and assist individuals

and households to make environmentally informed choices by:

a. Providing information on the consequences of consumption choices and behaviour

so as to encourage demand for environmentally sound products and use of products;

b. Making consumers aware of the health and environmental impact of products,

through such means as consumer legislation and environmental labelling;

c. Encouraging specific consumer-oriented programmes, such as recycling and

deposit/refund systems.

(d) Exercising leadership through government purchasing

4.23. Governments themselves also play a role in consumption, particularly in countries where the

public sector plays a large role in the economy and can have a considerable influence on both

corporate decisions and public perceptions. They should therefore review the purchasing policies of

their agencies and departments so that they may improve, where possible, the environmental content

of government procurement policies, without prejudice to international trade principles.

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(e) Moving towards environmentally sound pricing

4.24. Without the stimulus of prices and market signals that make clear to producers and consumers the

environmental costs of the consumption of energy, materials and natural resources and the generation

of wastes, significant changes in consumption and production patterns seem unlikely to occur in the

near future.

4.25. Some progress has begun in the use of appropriate economic instruments to influence consumer

behaviour. These instruments include environmental charges and taxes, deposit/refund systems, etc.

This process should be encouraged in the light of country-specific conditions.

(f) Reinforcing values that support sustainable consumption

4.26. Governments and private-sector organizations should promote more positive attitudes towards

sustainable consumption through education, public awareness programmes and other means, such as

positive advertising of products and services that utilize environmentally sound technologies or

encourage sustainable production and consumption patterns. In the review of the implementation of

Agenda 21, an assessment of the progress achieved in developing these national policies and strategies

should be given due consideration.

Means of implementation

4.27. This programme is concerned primarily with changes in unsustainable patterns of consumption

and production and values that encourage sustainable consumption patterns and lifestyles. It requires

the combined efforts of Governments, consumers and producers. Particular attention should be paid to

the significant role played by women and households as consumers and the potential impacts of their

combined purchasing power on the economy.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 5

DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABILITY

5.1. This chapter contains the following programme areas:

a. Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and

factors and sustainable development;

b. Formulating integrated national policies for environment and development, taking into account

demographic trends and factors;

c. Implementing integrated, environment and development programmes at the local level, taking into

account demographic trends and factors.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Developing and disseminating knowledge concerning the links between demographic trends and

factors and sustainable development

Basis for action

5.2. Demographic trends and factors and sustainable development have a synergistic relationship.

5.3. The growth of world population and production combined with unsustainable consumption patterns

places increasingly severe stress on the life-supporting capacities of our planet. These interactive

processes affect the use of land, water, air, energy and other resources. Rapidly growing cities, unless

well-managed, face major environmental problems. The increase in both the number and size of cities

calls for greater attention to issues of local government and municipal management. The human

dimensions are key elements to consider in this intricate set of relationships and they should be

adequately taken into consideration in comprehensive policies for sustainable development. Such

policies should address the linkages of demographic trends and factors, resource use, appropriate

technology dissemination, and development. Population policy should also recognize the role played

by human beings in environmental and development concerns. There is a need to increase awareness

of this issue among decision makers at all levels and to provide both better information on which to

base national and international policies and a framework against which to interpret this information.

5.4. There is a need to develop strategies to mitigate both the adverse impact on the environment of human

activities and the adverse impact of environmental change on human populations. The world’s

population is expected to exceed 8 billion by the year 2020. Sixty per cent of the world’s population

already live in coastal areas, while 65 per cent of cities with populations above 2.5 million are located

along the world coasts; several of them are already at or below the present sea level.

Objectives

5.5. The following objectives should be achieved as soon as practicable:

a. To incorporate demographic trends and factors in the global analysis of environment and

development issues;

b. To develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics,

technology, cultural behaviour, natural resources and life support systems;

c. To assess human vulnerability in ecologically sensitive areas and centres of population to

determine the priorities for action at all levels, taking full account of community defined

needs.

Activities

Research on the interaction between demographic trends and factors and sustainable development

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5.6. Relevant international, regional and national institutions should consider undertaking the following

activities:

a. Identifying the interactions between demographic processes, natural resources and life support

systems, bearing in mind regional and subregional variations deriving from, inter alia,

different levels of development;

b. Integrating demographic trends and factors into the ongoing study of environmental change,

using the expertise of international, regional and national research networks and of local

communities, first, to study the human dimensions of environmental change and, second, to

identify vulnerable areas;

c. Identifying priority areas for action and developing strategies and programmes to mitigate the

adverse impact of environmental change on human populations, and vice versa.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

5.7. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $10 million from the international community on grant or

concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been

reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,

will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for

implementation.

(b) Strengthening research programmes that integrate population, environment and development

5.8. In order to integrate demographic analysis into a broader social science perspective on environment

and development, interdisciplinary research should be increased. International institutions and

networks of experts should enhance their scientific capacity, taking full account of community

experience and knowledge, and should disseminate the experience gained in multidisciplinary

approaches and in linking theory to action.

5.9. Better modelling capabilities should be developed, identifying the range of possible outcomes of

current human activities, especially the interrelated impact of demographic trends and factors, per

capita resource use and wealth distribution, as well as the major migration flows that may be expected

with increasing climatic events and cumulative environmental change that may destroy people’s local

livelihoods.

(c) Developing information and public awareness

5.10. Socio-demographic information should be developed in a suitable format for interfacing with

physical, biological and socio-economic data. Compatible spatial and temporal scales, cross-country

and time-series information, as well as global behavioural indicators should be developed, learning

from local communities’ perceptions and attitudes.

5.11. Awareness should be increased at all levels concerning the need to optimize the sustainable use of

resources through efficient resource management, taking into account the development needs of the

populations of developing countries.

5.12. Awareness should be increased of the fundamental linkages between improving the status of

women and demographic dynamics, particularly through women’s access to education, primary and

reproductive health care programmes, economic independence and their effective, equitable

participation in all levels of decision-making.

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5.13. Results of research concerned with sustainable development issues should be disseminated

through technical reports, scientific journals, the media, workshops, forums or other means so that the

information can be used by decision makers at all levels and increase public awareness.

(d) Developing and/or enhancing institutional capacity and collaboration

5.14. Collaboration and exchange of information should be increased between research institutions and

international, regional and national agencies and all other sectors (including the private sector, local

communities, non-governmental organizations and scientific institutions) from both the industrialized

and developing countries, as appropriate.

5.15. Efforts should be intensified to enhance the capacities of national and local governments, the

private sector and non-governmental organizations in developing countries to meet the growing needs

for improved management of rapidly growing urban areas.

B. Formulating integrated national policies for environment and development, taking into account

demographic trends and factors

Basis for action

5.16. Existing plans for sustainable development have generally recognized demographic trends and

factors as elements that have a critical influence on consumption patterns, production, lifestyles and

long-term sustainability. But in future, more attention will have to be given to these issues in general

policy formulation and the design of development plans. To do this, all countries will have to improve

their own capacities to assess the environment and development implications of their demographic

trends and factors. They will also need to formulate and implement policies and action programmes

where appropriate. Policies should be designed to address the consequences of population growth built

into population momentum, while at the same time incorporating measures to bring about

demographic transition. They should combine environmental concerns and population issues within a

holistic view of development whose primary goals include the alleviation of poverty; secure

livelihoods; good health; quality of life; improvement of the status and income of women and their

access to schooling and professional training, as well as fulfilment of their personal aspirations; and

empowerment of individuals and communities. Recognizing that large increases in the size and

number of cities will occur in developing countries under any likely population scenario, greater

attention should be given to preparing for the needs, in particular of women and children, for improved

municipal management and local government.

Objective

5.17. Full integration of population concerns into national planning, policy and decision-making

processes should continue. Population policies and programmes should be considered, with full

recognition of women’s rights.

Activities

5.18. Governments and other relevant actors could, inter alia, undertake the following activities, with

appropriate assistance from aid agencies, and report on their status of implementation to the

International Conference on Population and Development to be held in 1994, especially to its

committee on population and environment.

(a) Assessing the implications of national demographic trends and factors

5.19. The relationships between demographic trends and factors and environmental change and between

environmental degradation and the components of demographic change should be analysed.

5.20. Research should be conducted on how environmental factors interact with socio-economic factors

as a cause of migration.

5.21. Vulnerable population groups (such as rural landless workers, ethnic minorities, refugees,

migrants, displaced people, women heads of household) whose changes in demographic structure may

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have specific impacts on sustainable development should be identified.

5.22. An assessment should be made of the implications of the age structure of the population on

resource demand and dependency burdens, ranging from educational expenses for the young to health

care and support for the elderly, and on household income generation.

5.23. An assessment should also be made of national population carrying capacity in the context of

satisfaction of human needs and sustainable development, and special attention should be given to

critical resources, such as water and land, and environmental factors, such as ecosystem health and

biodiversity.

5.24. The impact of national demographic trends and factors on the traditional livelihoods of indigenous

groups and local communities, including changes in traditional land use because of internal population

pressures, should be studied.

(b) Building and strengthening a national information base

5.25. National databases on demographic trends and factors and environment should be built and/or

strengthened, disaggregating data by ecological region (ecosystem approach), and

population/environment profiles should be established by region.

5.26. Methodologies and instruments should be developed to identify areas where sustainability is, or

may be, threatened by the environmental effects of demographic trends and factors, incorporating both

current and projected demographic data linked to natural environmental processes.

5.27. Case-studies of local level responses by different groups to demographic dynamics should be

developed, particularly in areas subject to environmental stress and in deteriorating urban centres.

5.28. Population data should be disaggregated by, inter alia, sex and age in order to take into account the

implications of the gender division of labour for the use and management of natural resources.

(c) Incorporating demographic features into policies and plans

5.29. In formulating human settlements policies, account should be taken of resource needs, waste

production and ecosystem health.

5.30. 5.30. The direct and induced effects of demographic changes on environment and development

programmes should, where appropriate, be integrated, and the impact on demographic features

assessed.

5.31. 5.31. National population policy goals and programmes that are consistent with national

environment and development plans for sustainability and in keeping with the freedom, dignity and

personally held values of individuals should be established and implemented.

5.32. 5.32. Appropriate socio-economic policies for the young and the elderly, both in terms of family

and state support systems, should be developed.

5.33. 5.33. Policies and programmes should be developed for handling the various types of migrations

that result from or induce environmental disruptions, with special attention to women and vulnerable

groups.

5.34. 5.34. Demographic concerns, including concerns for environmental migrants and displaced

people, should be incorporated in the programmes for sustainable development of relevant

international and regional institutions.

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5.35. 5.35. National reviews should be conducted and the integration of population policies in national

development and environment strategies should be monitored nationally.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

5.36. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $90 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Raising awareness of demographic and sustainable develop ment interactions

5.37. Understanding of the interactions between demographic trends and factors and sustainable

development should be increased in all sectors of society. Stress should be placed on local and national

action. Demographic and sustainable development education should be coordinated and integrated in

both the formal and non-formal education sectors. Particular attention should be given to population

literacy programmes, notably for women. Special emphasis should be placed on the linkage between

these programmes, primary environmental care and the provision of primary health care and services.

(c) Strengthening institutions

5.38. The capacity of national, regional and local structures to deal with issues relating to demographic

trends and factors and sustainable development should be enhanced. This would involve strengthening

the relevant bodies responsible for population issues to enable them to elaborate policies consistent

with the national prospects for sustainable development. Cooperation among government, national

research institutions, non-governmental organizations and local communities in assessing problems

and evaluating policies should also be enhanced.

5.39. The capacity of the relevant United Nations organs, organizations and bodies, international and

regional intergovernmental bodies, non-governmental organizations and local communities should, as

appropriate, be enhanced to help countries develop sustainable development policies on request and, as

appropriate, provide assistance to environmental migrants and displaced people.

5.40. Inter-agency support for national sustainable development policies and programmes should be

improved through better coordination of population and environment activities.

(d) Promoting human resource development

5.41. The international and regional scientific institutions should assist Governments, upon request, to

include concerns regarding the population/environment interactions at the global, ecosystem and

micro-levels in the training of demographers and population and environment specialists. Training

should include research on linkages and ways to design integrated strategies.

C. Implementing integrated environment and development programmes at the local level, taking into

account demographic trends and factors

Basis for action

5.42. Population programmes are more effective when implemented together with appropriate cross- sectoral policies. To attain sustainability at the local level, a new framework is needed that integrates

demographic trends and factors with such factors as ecosystem health, technology and human

settlements, and with socio-economic structures and access to resources. Population programmes

should be consistent with socio-economic and environmental planning. Integrated sustainable

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development programmes should closely correlate action on demographic trends and factors with

resource management activities and development goals that meet the needs of the people concerned.

Objective

5.43. Population programmes should be implemented along with natural resource management and

development programmes at the local level that will ensure sustainable use of natural resources,

improve the quality of life of the people and enhance environmental quality.

Activities

5.44. Governments and local communities, including community-based women’s organizations and

national non-governmental organizations, consistent with national plans, objectives, strategies and

priorities, could, inter alia, undertake the activities set out below with the assistance and cooperation of

international organizations, as appropriate. Governments could share their experience in the

implementation of Agenda 21 at the International Conference on Population and Development, to be

held in 1994, especially its committee on population and environment.

(a) Developing a framework for action

5.45. An effective consultative process should be established and implemented with concerned groups

of society where the formulation and decision-making of all components of the programmes are based

on a nationwide consultative process drawing on community meetings, regional workshops and

national seminars, as appropriate. This process should ensure that views of women and men on needs,

perspective and constraints are equally well reflected in the design of programmes, and that solutions

are rooted in specific experience. The poor and underprivileged should be priority groups in this

process.

5.46. Nationally determined policies for integrated and multifaceted programmes, with special attention

to women, to the poorest people living in critical areas and to other vulnerable groups should be

implemented, ensuring the involvement of groups with a special potential to act as agents for change

and sustainable development. Special emphasis should be placed on those programmes that achieve

multiple objectives, encouraging sustainable economic development, and mitigating adverse impacts

of demographic trends and factors, and avoiding long-term environmental damage. Food security,

access to secure tenure, basic shelter, and essential infrastructure, education, family welfare, women’s

reproductive health, family credit schemes, reforestation programmes, primary environmental care,

women’s employment should, as appropriate, be included among other factors.

5.47. An analytical framework should be develop ed to identify complementary elements of sustainable

development policies as well as the national mechanisms to monitor and evaluate their effects on

population dynamics.

5.48. Special attention should be given to the critical role of women in population/environment

programmes and in achieving sustainable development. Projects should take advantage of

opportunities to link social, economic and environmental gains for women and their families.

Empowerment of women is essential and should be assured through education, training and policies to

accord and improve women’s right and access to assets, human and civil rights, labour-saving

measures, job opportunities and participation in decision-making. Population/environment

programmes must enable women to mobilize themselves to alleviate their burden and improve their

capacity to participate in and benefit from socio-economic development. Specific measures should be

undertaken to close the gap between female and male illiteracy rates.

(b) Supporting programmes that promote changes in demographic trends and factors towards sustainability

5.49. Reproductive health programmes and services, should, as appropriate, be developed and enhanced

to reduce maternal and infant mortality from all causes and enable women and men to fulfil their

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personal aspirations in terms of family size, in a way in keeping with their freedom and dignity and

personally held values.

5.50. Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with

country-specific conditions and legal systems, measures to ensure that women and men have the same

right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to

the information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercis e this right in keeping

with their freedom, dignity and personally held values taking into account ethical and cultural

considerations.

5.51. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to establish and strengthen

preventive and curative health facilities that include women-centred, women-managed, safe and

effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the

responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and

taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. Programmes should focus on providing

comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care, education and information on health and

responsible parenthood and should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least

during the first four months post-partum. Programmes should fully support women’s productive and

reproductive roles and well being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and improved

health care for all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness.

5.52. Consistent with national priorities, culturally based information and education programmes that

transmit reproductive health messages to men and women that are easily understood should be

developed.

(c) Creating appropriate institutional conditions

5.53. Constituencies and institutional conditions to facilitate the implementation of demographic

activities should, as appropriate, be fostered. This requires support and commitment from political,

indigenous, religious and traditional authorities, the private sector and the national scientific

community. In developing these appropriate institutional conditions, countries should closely involve

established national machinery for women.

5.54. Population assistance should be coordinated with bilateral and multilateral donors to ensure that

population needs and requirements of all developing countries are addressed, fully respecting the

overall coordinating responsibility and the choice and strategies of the recipient countries.

5.55. Coordination should be improved at local and international levels. Working practices should be

enhanced in order to make optimum use of resources, draw on collective experience and improve the

implementation of programmes. UNFPA and other relevant agencies should strengthen the

coordination of international cooperation activities with recipient and donor countries in order to

ensure that adequate funding is available to respond to growing needs.

5.56. Proposals should be developed for local, national and international population/environment

programmes in line with specific needs for achieving sustainability. Where appropriate, institutional

changes must be implemented so that old-age security does not entirely depend on input from family

members.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

5.57. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $7 billion, including about $3.5 billion from

the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

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terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Research

5.58. Research should be undertaken with a view to developing specific action programmes; it will be

necessary to establish priorities between proposed areas of research.

5.59. Socio-demographic research should be conducted on how populations respond to a changing

environment.

5.60. Understanding of socio-cultural and political factors that can positively influence acceptance of

appropriate population policy instruments should be improved.

5.61. Surveys of changes in needs for appropriate services relating to responsible planning of family

size, reflecting variations among different socio-economic groups and variations in different

geographical regions should be undertaken.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

5.62. The areas of human resource development and capacity-building, with particular attention to the

education and training of women, are areas of critical importance and are a very high priority in the

implementation of population programmes.

5.63. Workshops to help programme and projects managers to link population programmes to other

development and environmental goals should be conducted.

5.64. Educational materials, including guides/workbooks for planners and decision makers and other

actors of population/environment/development programmes, should be developed.

5.65. Cooperation should be developed between Governments, scientific institutions and non- governmental organizations within the region, and similar institutions outside the region. Cooperation

with local organizations should be fostered in ordered to raise awareness, engage in demonstration

projects and report on the experience gained.

5.66. The recommendations contained in this chapter should in no way prejudice discussions at the

International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, which will be the appropriate

forum for dealing with population and development issues, taking into account the recommendations

of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in 1984, 1/ and the Forward- looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, 2/ adopted by the World Conference to Review

and Appraise the Achievements of the United Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace,

held in Nairobi in 1985.

Notes

1/ Report of the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, 6-14 August 1984 (United Nations

publication, Sales No. E.84.XIII.8), chap. I.

2/ Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations

Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations

publication, Sales No. E.84.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 6

PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN HEALTH

6.1. Health and development are intimately interconnected. Both insufficient development leading to

poverty and inappropriate development resulting in overconsumption, coupled with an expanding

world population, can result in severe environmental health p roblems in both developing and

developed nations. Action items under Agenda 21 must address the primary health needs of the

world’s population, since they are integral to the achievement of the goals of sustainable development

and primary environmental care. The linkage of health, environmental and socio-economic

improvements requires intersectoral efforts. Such efforts, involving education, housing, public works

and community groups, including businesses, schools and universities and religious, civic and cultural

organizations, are aimed at enabling people in their communities to ensure sustainable development.

Particularly relevant is the inclusion of prevention programmes rather than relying solely on

remediation and treatment. Countries ought to develop plans for priority actions, drawing on the

programme areas in this chapter, which are based on cooperative planning by the various levels of

government, non-governmental organizations and local communities. An appropriate international

organization, such as WHO, should coordinate these activities.

6.2. The following programme areas are contained in this chapter:

a. Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas;

b. Control of communicable diseases;

c. Protecting vulnerable groups;

d. Meeting the urban health challenge;

e. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Meeting primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas Basis for action

6.3. Health ultimately depends on the ability to manage successfully the interaction between the physical,

spiritual, biological and economic/social environment. Sound development is not possible without a

healthy population; yet most developmental activities affect the environment to some degree, which in

turn causes or exacerbates many health problems. Conversely, it is the very lack of development that

adversely affects the health condition of many people, which can be alleviated only through

development. The health sector cannot meet basic needs and objectives on its own; it is dependent on

social, economic and spiritual development, while directly contributing to such development. It is also

dependent on a healthy environment, including the provision of a safe water supply and sanitation and

the promotion of a safe food supply and proper nutrition. Particular attention should be directed

towards food safety, with priority placed on the elimination of food contamination; comprehensive and

sustainable water policies to ensure safe drinking water and sanitation to preclude both microbial and

chemical contamination; and promotion of health education, immunization and provision of essential

drugs. Education and appropriate services regarding responsible planning of family size, with respect

for cultural, religious and social aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values

and taking into account ethical and cultural considerations, also contribute to these intersectoral

activities.

Objectives

6.4. Within the overall strategy to achieve health for all by the year 2000, the objectives are to meet the

basic health needs of rural peri-urban and urban populations; to provide the necessary specialized

environmental health services; and to coordinate the involvement of citizens, the health sector, the

health-related sectors and relevant non-health sectors (business, social, educational and religious

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institutions) in solutions to health problems. As a matter of priority, health service coverage should be

achieved for population groups in greatest need, particularly those living in rural areas.

Activities

6.5. National Governments and local authorities, with the support of relevant non-governmental

organizations and international organizations, in the light of countries’ specific conditions and needs,

should strengthen their health sector programmes, with special attention to rural needs, to:

(a) Build basic health infrastructures, monitoring and planning systems:

i. Develop and strengthen primary health care systems that are practical, community-based,

scientifically sound, socially acceptable and appropriate to their needs and that meet basic

health needs for clean water, safe food and sanitation;

ii. Support the use and strengthening of mechanisms that improve coordination between health

and related sectors at all appropriate levels of government, and in communities and relevant

organizations;

iii. Develop and implement rational and affordable approaches to the establishment and

maintenance of health facilities;

iv. Ensure and, where appropriate, increase provision of social services support;

v. Develop strategies, including reliable health indicators, to monitor the progress and evaluate

the effectiveness of health programmes;

vi. Explore ways to finance the health system based on the assessment of the resources needed

and identify the various financing alternatives;

vii. Promote health education in schools, information exchange, technical support and training;

viii. Support initiatives for self-management of services by vulnerable groups;

ix. Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into national health systems, as appropriate;

x. Promote the provisions for necessary logistics for outreach activities, particularly in rural

areas;

xi. Promote and strengthen community-based rehabilitation activities for the rural handicapped.

(b) Support research and methodology development:

i. Establish mechanisms for sustained community involvement in environmental health

activities, including optimization of the appropriate use of community financial and human

resources;

ii. Conduct environmental health research, including behaviour research and research on ways to

increase coverage and ensure greater utilization of services by peripheral, underserved and

vulnerable populations, as appropriate to good prevention services and health care;

iii. Conduct research into traditional knowledge of prevention and curative health practices.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.6. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $40 billion, including about $5 billion from the

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international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude

estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms,

including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.7. New approaches to planning and managing health care systems and facilities should be tested, and

research on ways of integrating appropriate technologies into health infrastructures supported. The

development of scientifically sound health technology should enhance adaptability to local needs and

maintainability by community resources, including the maintenance and repair of equipment used in

health care. Programmes to facilitate the transfer and sharing of information and expertise should be

developed, including communication methods and educational materials.

(c) Human resource development

6.8. Intersectoral approaches to the reform of health personnel development should be strengthened to

ensure its relevance to the “Health for All” strategies. Efforts to enhance managerial skills at the

district level should be supported, with the aim of ensuring the systematic development and efficient

operation of the basic health system. Intensive, short, practical training programmes with emphasis on

skills in effective communication, community organization and facilitation of behaviour change

should be developed in order to prepare the local personnel of all sectors involved in social

development for carrying out their respective roles. In cooperation with the education sector, special

health education programmes should be developed focusing on the role of women in the health-care

system.

(d) Capacity-building

6.9. Governments should consider adopting enabling and facilitating strategies to promote the participation

of communities in meeting their own needs, in addition to providing direct support to the provision of

health-care services. A major focus should be the preparation of community-based health and health- related workers to assume an active role in community health education, with emphasis on team work,

social mobilization and the support of other development workers. National programmes should cover

district health systems in urban, peri-urban and rural areas, the delivery of health programmes at the

district level, and the development and support of referral services.

B. Control of communicable diseases

Basis for action

6.10. Advances in the development of vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents have brought many

communicable diseases under control. However, there remain many important communicable diseases

for which environmental control measures are indispensable, especially in the field of water supply

and sanitation. Such diseases include cholera, diarrhoeal diseases, leishmaniasis, malaria and

schistosomiasis. In all such instances, the environmental measures, either as an integral part of primary

health care or undertaken outside the health sector, form an indispensable component of overall

disease control strategies, together with health and hygiene education, and in some cases, are the only

component.

6.11. With HIV infection levels estimated to increase to 30-40 million by the year 2000, the socio- economic impact of the pandemic is expected to be devastating for all countries, and increasingly for

women and children. While direct health costs will be substantial, they will be dwarfed by the indirect

costs of the pandemic – mainly costs associated with the loss of income and decreased productivity of

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the workforce. The pandemic will inhibit growth of the service and industrial sectors and significantly

increase the costs of human capacity-building and retraining. The agricultural sector is particularly

affected where production is labour-intensive.

Objectives

6.12. A number of goals have been formulated through extensive consultations in various international

forums attended by virtually all Governments, relevant United Nations organizations (including WHO,

UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO, UNDP and the World Bank) and a number of non-governmental

organizations. Goals (including but not limited to those listed below) are recommended for

implementation by all countries where they are applicable, with appropriate adaptation to the specific

situation of each country in terms of phasing, standards, priorities and availability of resources, with

respect for cultural, religious and social aspects, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held

values and taking into account ethical considerations. Additional goals that are particularly relevant to

a country’s specific situation should be added in the country’s national plan of action (Plan of Action

for Implementing the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in

the 1990s). 1/ Such national level action plans should be coordinated and monitored from within the

public health sector. Some major goals are:

a. By the year 2000, to eliminate guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis);

b. By the year 2000, eradicate polio;

c. By the year 2000, to effectively control onchocerciasis (river blindness) and leprosy;

d. By 1995, to reduce measles deaths by 95 per cent and reduce measles cases by 90 per cent

compared with pre-immunization levels;

e. By continued efforts, to provide health and hygiene education and to ensure universal access

to safe drinking water and universal access to sanitary measures of excreta disposal, thereby

markedly reducing waterborne diseases such as cholera and schistosomiasis and reducing:

i. By the year 2000, the number of deaths from childhood diarrhoea in developing

countries by 50 to 70 per cent;

ii. By the year 2000, the incidence of childhood diarrhoea in developing countries by at

least 25 to 50 per cent;

f. By the year 2000, to initiate comprehensive programmes to reduce mortality from acute

respiratory infections in children under five years by at least one third, particularly in

countries with high infant mortality;

g. By the year 2000, to provide 95 per cent of the world’s child population with access to

appropriate care for acute respiratory infections within the community and at first referral

level;

h. By the year 2000, to institute anti-malaria programmes in all countries where malaria presents

a significant health problem and maintain the transmission-free status of areas freed from

endemic malaria;

i. By the year 2000, to implement control programmes in countries where major human

parasitic infections are endemic and achieve an overall reduction in the prevalence of

schistosomiasis and of other trematode infections by 40 per cent and 25 per cent, respectively,

from a 1984 baseline, as well as a marked reduction in incidence, prevalence and intensity of

filarial infections;

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j. To mobilize and unify national and international efforts against AIDS to prevent infection and

to reduce the personal and social impact of HIV infection;

k. To contain the resurgence of tuberculosis, with particular emphasis on multiple antibiotic

resistant forms;

l. To accelerate research on improved vaccines and implement to the fullest extent possible the

use of vaccines in the prevention of disease.

Activities

6.13. Each national Government, in accordance with national plans for public health, priorities and

objectives, should consider developing a national health action plan with appropriate international

assistance and support, including, at a minimum, the following components:

a. National public health systems:

i. Programmes to identify environmental hazards in the causation of communicable

diseases;

ii. Monitoring systems of epidemiological data to ensure adequate forecasting of the

introduction, spread or aggravation of communicable diseases;

iii. Intervention programmes, including measures consistent with the principles of the

global AIDS strategy;

iv. Vaccines for the prevention of communicable diseases;

b. Public information and health education: Provide education and disseminate information on

the risks of endemic communicable diseases and build awareness on environmental methods

for control of communicable diseases to enable communities to play a role in the control of

communicable diseases;

c. Intersectoral cooperation and coordination:

i. Second experienced health professionals to relevant sectors, such as planning,

housing and agriculture;

ii. Develop guidelines for effective coordination in the areas of professional training,

assessment of risks and development of control technology;

d. Control of environmental factors that influence the spread of communicable diseases: Apply

methods for the prevention and control of communicable diseases, including water supply and

sanitation control, water pollution control, food quality control, integrated vector control,

garbage collection and disposal and environmentally sound irrigation practices;

e. Primary health care system:

i. Strengthen prevention programmes, with particular emphasis on adequate and

balanced nutrition;

ii. Strengthen early diagnostic programmes and improve capacities for early

preventative/treatment action;

iii. Reduce the vulnerability to HIV infection of women and their offspring;

f. Support for research and methodology development:

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i. Intensify and expand multidisciplinary research, including focused efforts on the

mitigation and environmental control of tropical diseases;

ii. Carry out intervention studies to provide a solid epidemiological basis for control

policies and to evaluate the efficiency of alternative approaches;

iii. Undertake studies in the population and among health workers to determine the

influence of cultural, behavioural and social factors on control policies;

g. Development and dissemination of technology:

i. Develop new technologies for the effective control of communicable diseases;

ii. Promote studies to determine how to optimally disseminate results from research;

iii. Ensure technical assistance, including the sharing of knowledge and know-how.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.14. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $4 billion, including about $900 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.15. Efforts to prevent and control diseases should include investigations of the epidemiological, social

and economic bases for the development of more effective national strategies for the integrated control

of communicable diseases. Cost-effective methods of environmental control should be adapted to local

developmental conditions.

(c) Human resource development

6.16. National and regional training institutions should promote broad intersectoral approaches to

prevention and control of communicable diseases, including training in epidemiology and community

prevention and control, immunology, molecular biology and the application of new vaccines. Health

education materials should be developed for use by community workers and for the education of

mothers for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in the home.

(d) Capacity-building

6.17. The health sector should develop adequate data on the distribution of communicable diseases, as

well as the institutional capacity to respond and collaborate with other sectors for prevention,

mitigation and correction of communicable disease hazards through environmental protection. The

advocacy at policy- and decision-making levels should be gained, professional and societal support

mobilized, and communities organized in developing self-reliance.

C. Protecting vulnerable groups

Basis for action

6.18. In addition to meeting basic health needs, specific emphasis has to be given to protecting and

educating vulnerable groups, particularly infants, youth, women, indigenous people and the very poor

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as a prerequisite for sustainable development. Special attention should also be paid to the health needs

of the elderly and disabled population.

6.19. Infants and children. Approximately one third of the world’s population are children under 15

years old. At least 15 million of these children die annually from such preventable causes as birth

trauma, birth asphyxia, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, communicable diseases and

diarrhoea. The health of children is affected more severely than other population groups by

malnutrition and adverse environmental factors, and many children risk exploitation as cheap labour or

in prostitution.

6.20. Youth. As has been the historical experience of all countries, youth are particularly vulnerable to

the problems associated with economic development, which often weakens traditional forms of social

support essential for the healthy development, of young people. Urbanization and changes in social

mores have increased substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,

including AIDS. Currently more than half of all people alive are under the age of 25, and four of every

five live in developing countries. Therefore it is important to ensure that historical experience is not

replicated.

6.21. Women. In developing countries, the health status of women remains relatively low, and during

the 1980s poverty, malnutrition and general ill-health in women were even rising. Most women in

developing countries still do not have adequate basic educational opportunities and they lack the

means of promoting their health, responsibly controlling their reproductive life and improving their

socio-economic status. Particular attention should be given to the provision of pre-natal care to ensure

healthy babies.

6.22. Indigenous people and their communities. Indigenous people had their communities make up a

significant percentage of global population. The outcomes of their experience have tended to be very

similar in that the basis of their relationship with traditional lands has been fundamentally changed.

They tend to feature disproportionately in unemployment, lack of housing, poverty and poor health. In

many countries the number of indigenous people is growing faster than the general population.

Therefore it is important to target health initiatives for indigenous people.

Objectives

6.23. The general objectives of protecting vulnerable groups are to ensure that all such individuals

should be allowed to develop to their full potential (including healthy physical, mental and spiritual

development); to ensure t hat young people can develop, establish and maintain healthy lives; to allow

women to perform their key role in society; and to support indigenous people through educational,

economic and technical opportunities.

6.24. Specific major goals for child survival, development and protection were agreed upon at the

World Summit for Children and remain valid also for Agenda 21. Supporting and sectoral goals cover

women’s health and education, nutrition, child health, water and sanitation, basic education and

children in difficult circumstances.

6.25. Governments should take active steps to implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance with

country specific conditions and legal systems, measures to ensure that women and men have the same

right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, to have access to

the information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable them to exercise this right in keeping

with their freedom, dignity and personally held values, taking into account ethical and cultural

considerations.

6.26. Governments should take active steps to implement programmes to establish and strengthen

preventive and curative health facilities which include women-centred, women-managed, safe and

effective reproductive health care and affordable, accessible services, as appropriate, for the

responsible planning of family size, in keeping with freedom, dignity and personally held values and

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taking into account ethical and cultural considerations. Programmes should focus on providing

comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care, education and information on health and

responsible parenthood and should provide the opportunity for all women to breast-feed fully, at least

during the first four months post-partum. Programmes should fully support women’s productive and

reproductive roles and well being, with special attention to the need for providing equal and improved

health care for all children and the need to reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness.

Activities

6.27. National Governments, in cooperation with local and non-governmental organizations, should

initiate or enhance programmes in the following areas:

a. Infants and children:

i. Strengthen basic health-care services for children in the context of primary health- care delivery, including prenatal care, breast-feeding, immunization and nutrition

programmes;

ii. Undertake widespread adult education on the use of oral rehydration therapy for

diarrhoea, treatment of respiratory infections and prevention of communicable

diseases;

iii. Promote the creation, amendment and enforcement of a legal framework protecting

children from sexual and workplace exploitation;

iv. Protect children from the effects of environmental and occupational toxic

compounds;

b. Youth: Strengthen services for youth in health, education and social sectors in order to

provide better information, education, counselling and treatment for specific health problems,

including drug abuse;

c. Women:

i. Involve women’s groups in decision-making at the national and community levels to

identify health risks and incorporate health issues in national action programmes on

women and development;

ii. Provide concrete incentives to encourage and maintain attendance of women of all

ages at school and adult education courses, including health education and training in

primary, home and maternal health care;

iii. Carry out baseline surveys and knowledge, attitude and practice studies on the health

and nutrition of women throughout their life cycle, especially as related to the impact

of environmental degradation and adequate resources;

d. Indigenous people and their communities:

i. Strengthen, through resources and self-management, preventative and curative health

services;

ii. Integrate traditional knowledge and experience into health systems.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.28. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3.7 billion, including about $400 billion

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from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.29. Educational, health and research institutions should be strengthened to provide support to improve

the health of vulnerable groups. Social research on the specific problems of these groups should be

expanded and methods for implementing flexible pragmatic solutions explored, with emphasis on

preventive measures. Technical support should be provided to Governments, institutions and non- governmental organizations for youth, women and indigenous people in the health sector.

(c) Human resources development

6.30. The development of human resources for the health of children, youth and women should include

reinforcement of educational instit utions, promotion of interactive methods of education for health and

increased use of mass media in disseminating information to the target groups. This requires the

training of more community health workers, nurses, midwives, physicians, social scientists and

educators, the education of mothers, families and communities and the strengthening of ministries of

education, health, population etc.

(d) Capacity-building

6.31. Governments should promote, where necessary: (i) the organization of national, intercountry and

interregional symposia and other meetings for the exchange of information among agencies and

groups concerned with the health of children, youth, women and indigenous people, and (ii) women’s

organizations, youth groups and indigenous people’s organizations to facilitate health and consult them

on the creation, amendment and enforcement of legal frameworks to ensure a healthy environment for

children, youth, women and indigenous peoples.

D. Meeting the urban health challenge

Basis for action

6.32. For hundreds of millions of people, the poor living conditions in urban and peri-urban areas are

destroying lives, health, and social and moral values. Urban growth has outstripped society’s capacity

to meet human needs, leaving hundreds of millions of people with inadequate incomes, diets, housing

and services. Urban growth exposes populations to serious environmental hazards and has outstripped

the capacity of municipal and local governments to provide the environmental health services that the

people need. All too often, urban development is associated with destructive effects on the physical

environment and the resource base needed for sustainable development. Environmental pollution in

urban areas is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Overcrowding and inadequate housing

contribute to respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, meningitis and other diseases. In urban environments,

many factors that affect human health are outside the health sector. Improvements in urban health

therefore will depend on coordinated action by all levels of government, health care providers,

businesses, religious groups, social and educational institutions and citizens.

Objectives

6.33. The health and well-being of all urban dwellers must be improved so that they can contribute to

economic and social development. The global objective is to achieve a 10 to 40 per cent improvement

in health indicators by the year 2000. The same rate of improvement should be achieved for

environmental, housing and health service indicators. These include the development of quantitative

objectives for infant mortality, maternal mortality, percentage of low birth weight newborns and

specific indicators (e.g. tuberculosis as an indicator of crowded housing, diarrhoeal diseases as

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indicators of inadequate water and sanitation, rates of industrial and transportation accidents that

indicate possible opportunities for prevention of injury, and social problems such as drug abuse,

violence and crime that indicate underlying social disorders).

Activities

6.34. Local authorities, with the appropriate support of national Governments and international

organizations should be encouraged to take effective measures to initiate or strengthen the following

activities:

a. Develop and implement municipal and local health plans:

i. Establish or strengthen intersectoral committees at both the political and technical

level, including active collaboration on linkages with scientific, cultural, religious,

medical, business, social and other city institutions, using networking arrangements;

ii. Adopt or strengthen municipal or local “enabling strategies” that emphasize “doing

with” rather than “doing for” and create supportive environments for health;

iii. Ensure that public health education in schools, workplace, mass media etc. is

provided or strengthened;

iv. Encourage communities to develop personal skills and awareness of primary health

care;

v. Promote and strengthen community-based rehabilitation activities for the urban and

peri-urban disabled and the elderly;

b. Survey, where necessary, the existing health, social and environmental conditions in cities,

including documentation of intra-urban differences;

c. Strengthen environmental health services:

i. Adopt health impact and environmental impact assessment procedures;

ii. Provide basic and in-service training for new and existing personnel;

d. Establish and maintain city networks for collaboration and exchange of models of good

practice.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

6.35. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $222 million, including about $22 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.36. Decision-making models should be further developed and more widely used to assess the costs

and the health and environment impacts of alternative technologies and strategies. Improvement in

urban development and management requires better national and municipal statistics based on

practical, standardized indicators. Development of methods is a priority for the measurement of intra-

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urban and intra-district variations in health status and environmental conditions, and for the

application of this information in planning and management.

(c) Human resources development

6.37. Programmes must supply the orientation and basic training of municipal staff required for the

healthy city processes. Basic and in-service training of environmental health personnel will also be

needed.

(d) Capacity-building

6.38. The programme is aimed towards improved planning and management capabilities in the

municipal and local government and its partners in central Government, the private sector and

universities. Capacity development should be focused on obtaining sufficient information, improving

coordination mechanisms linking all the key actors, and making better use of available instruments and

resources for implementation.

E. Reducing health risks from environmental pollution and hazards

Basis for action

6.39. In many locations around the world the general environment (air, water and land), workplaces and

even individual dwellings are so badly polluted that the health of hundreds of millions of people is

adversely affected. This is, inter alia, due to past and present developments in consumption and

production patterns and lifestyles, in energy production and use, in industry, in transportation etc., with

little or no regard for environmental protection. There have been notable improvements in some

countries, but deterioration of the environment continues. The ability of countries to tackle pollution

and health problems is greatly restrained because of lack of resources. Pollution control and health

protection measures have often not kept pace with economic development. Considerable development- related environmental health hazards exist in the newly industrializing countries. Furthermore, the

recent analysis of WHO has clearly established the interdependence among the factors of health,

environment and development and has revealed that most countries are lacking such integration as

would lead to an effective pollution control mechanism. 2/ Without prejudice to such criteria as may

be agreed upon by the international community, or to standards which will have to be determined

nationally, it will be essential in all cases to consider the systems of values prevailing in each country

and the extent of the applicability of standards that are valid for the most advanced countries but may

be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries.

Objectives

6.40. The overall objective is to minimize hazards and maintain the environment to a degree that human

health and safety is not impaired or endangered and yet encourage development to proceed. Specific

programme objectives are:

a. By the year 2000, to incorporate appropriate environmental and health safeguards as part

of national development programmes in all countries;

b. By the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, adequate national infrastructure and

programmes for providing environmental injury, hazard surveillance and the basis for

abatement in all countries;

c. By the year 2000, to establish, as appropriate, integrated programmes for tackling

pollution at the source and at the disposal site, with a focus on abatement actions in all

countries;

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d. To identify and compile, as appropriate, the necessary statistical information on health

effects to support cost/benefit analysis, including environmental health impact assessment

for pollution control, prevention and abatement measures.

Activities

6.41. Nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance, support and coordination,

where necessary, in this area should include:

a. Urban air pollution:

i. Develop appropriate pollution control technology on the basis of risk

assessment and epidemiological research for the introduction of

environmentally sound production processes and suitable safe mass

transport;

ii. Develop air pollution control capacities in large cities, emphasizing

enforcement programmes and using monitoring networks, as appropriate;

b. Indoor air pollution:

i. Support research and develop programmes for applying prevention and

control methods to reducing indoor air pollution, including the provision of

economic incentives for the installation of appropriate technology;

ii. Develop and implement health education campaigns, particularly in

developing countries, to reduce the health impact of domestic use of

biomass and coal;

c. Water pollution:

i. Develop appropriate water pollution control technologies on the basis of

health risk assessment;

ii. Develop water pollution control capacities in large cities;

d. Pesticides: Develop mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides in

order to minimize the risks to human health by transportation, storage, application

and residual effects of pesticides used in agriculture and preservation of wood;

e. Solid waste:

i. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal technologies on the basis of health

risk assessment;

ii. Develop appropriate solid waste disposal capacities in large cities;

f. Human settlements: Develop programmes for improving health conditions in human

settlements, in particular within slums and non-tenured settlements, on the basis of

health risk assessment;

g. Noise: Develop criteria for maximum permitted safe noise exposure levels and

promote noise assessment and control as part of environmental health programmes;

h. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: Develop and implement appropriate national

legislation, standards and enforcement procedures on the basis of existing

international guidelines;

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i. Effects of ultraviolet radiation: Undertake, as a matter of urgency, research

on the effects on human health of the increasing ultraviolet radiation

reaching the earth’s surface as a consequence of depletion of the

stratospheric ozone layer;

ii. On the basis of the outcome of this research, consider taking appropriate

remedial measures to mitigate the above-mentioned effects on human

beings;

i. Industry and energy production:

i. Establish environmental health impact assessment procedures for the

planning and development of new industries and energy facilities;

ii. Incorporate appropriate health risk analysis in all national programmes for

pollution control and management, with particular emphasis on toxic

compounds such as lead;

iii. Establish industrial hygiene programmes in all major industries for the

surveillance of workers’ exposure to health hazards;

iv. Promote the introduction of environmentally sound technologies within the

industry and energy sectors;

j. Monitoring and assessment: Establish, as appropriate, adequate environmental

monitoring capacities for the surveillance of environmental quality and the health

status of populations;

k. Injury monitoring and reduction:

i. Support, as appropriate, the development of systems to monitor the

incidence and cause of injury to allow well-targeted intervention/prevention

strategies;

ii. Develop, in accordance with national plans, strategies in all sectors

(industry, traffic and others) consistent with t he WHO safe cities and safe

communities programmes, to reduce the frequency and severity of injury;

iii. Emphasize preventive strategies to reduce occupationally derived diseases

and diseases caused by environmental and occupational toxins to enhance

worker safety;

l. Research promotion and methodology development:

i. Support the development of new methods for the quantitative assessment of

health benefits and cost associated with different pollution control

strategies;

ii. Develop and carry out interdisciplinary research on the combined health

effects of exposure to multiple environmental hazards, including

epidemiological investigations of long-term exposures to low levels of

pollutants and the use of biological markers capable of estimating human

exposures, adverse effects and susceptibility to environmental agents.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

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6.42. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $115 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

6.43. Although technology to prevent or abate pollution is readily available for a large number of

problems, for programme and policy development countries should undertake research within an

intersectoral framework. Such efforts should include collaboration with the business sector. Cost/effect

analysis and environmental impact assessment methods should be developed through cooperative

international programmes and applied to the setting of priorities and strategies in relation to health and

development.

6.44. In the activities listed in paragraph 6.41 (a) to (m) above, developing country efforts should be

facilitated by access to and transfer of technology, know-how and information, from the repositories of

such knowledge and technologies, in conformity with chapter 34.

(c) Human resource development

6.45. Comprehensive national strategies should be designed to overcome the lack of qualified human

resources, which is a major impediment to progress in dealing with environmental health hazards.

Training should include environmental and health officials at all levels from managers to inspect ors.

More emphasis needs to be placed on including the subject of environmental health in the curricula of

secondary schools and universities and on educating the public.

(d) Capacity-building

6.46. Each country should develop the knowledge and practical skills to foresee and identify

environmental health hazards, and the capacity to reduce the risks. Basic capacity requirements must

include knowledge about environmental health problems and awareness on the part of leaders, citizens

and specialists; operational mechanisms for intersectoral and intergovernmental cooperation in

development planning and management and in combating pollution; arrangements for involving

private and community interests in dealing with social issues; delegation of authority and distribution

of resources to intermediate and local levels of government to provide front-line capabilities to meet

environmental health needs.

Notes

1/ A/45/625, annex.

2/ Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment (Geneva, forthcoming).

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 7

PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

7.1. In industrialized countries, the consumption patterns of cities are severely stressing the global

ecosystem, while settlements in the developing world need more raw material, energy, and economic

development simply to overcome basic economic and social problems. Human settlement conditions

in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are deteriorating mainly as a result of

the low levels of investment in the sector attributable to the overall resource constraints in these

countries. In the low-income countries for which recent data are available, an average of only 5.6 per

cent of central government expenditure went to housing, amenities, social security and welfare. 1/

Expenditure by international support and finance organizations is equally low. For example, only 1 per

cent of the United Nations system’s total grant-financed expenditures in 1988 went to human

settlements, 2/ while in 1991, loans from the World Bank and the International Development

Association (IDA) for urban development and water supply and sewerage amounted to 5.5 and 5.4 per

cent, respectively, of their total lending. 3/

7.2. On the other hand, available information indicates that technical cooperation activities in the human

settlement sector generate considerable public and private sector investment. For example, every

dollar of UNDP technical cooperation expenditure on human settlements in 1988 generated a follow- up investment of $122, t he highest of all UNDP sectors of assistance. 4/

7.3. This is the foundation of the “enabling approach” advocated for the human settlement sector. External

assistance will help to generate the internal resources needed to improve the living and working

environments of all people by the year 2000 and beyond, including the growing number of

unemployed – the no-income group. At the same time the environmental implications of urban

development should be recognized and addressed in an integrated fashion by all countries, with high

priority being given to the needs of the urban and rural poor, the unemployed and the growing number

of people without any source of income.

Human settlement objective

7.4. The overall human settlement objective is to improve the social, economic and environmental quality

of human settlements and the living and working environments of all people, in particular the urban

and rural poor. Such improvement should be based on technical cooperation activities, partnerships

among the public, private and community sectors and participation in the decision-making process by

community groups and special interest groups such as women, indigenous people, the elderly and the

disabled. These approaches should form the core principles of national settlement strategies. In

developing these strategies, countries will need to set priorities among the eight programme areas in

this chapter in accordance with their national plans and objectives, taking fully into account their

social and cultural capabilities. Furthermore, countries should make appropriate provision to monitor

the impact of their strategies on marginalized and disenfranchised groups, with particular reference to

the needs of women.

7.5. The programme areas included in this chapter are:

a. Providing adequate shelter for all;

b. Improving human settlement management;

c. Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management;

d. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation,

drainage and solid-waste management;

e. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements;

f. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas;

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g. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities;

h. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlement

development.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Providing adequate shelter for all

Basis for action

7.6. Access to safe and healthy shelter is essential to a person’s physical, psychological, social and

economic well-being and should be a fundamental part of national and international action. The right

to adequate housing as a basic human right is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Despite this, it is estimated

that at the present time, at least 1 billion people do not have access to safe and healthy shelter and that

if appropriate action is not taken, this number will increase dramatically by the end of the century and

beyond.

7.7. A major global programme to address this problem is the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000,

adopted by the General Assembly in December 1988 (resolution 43/181, annex). Despite its

widespread endorsement, the Strategy needs a much greater level of political and financial support to

enable it to reach its goal of facilitating adequate shelter for all by the end of the century and beyond.

Objective

7.8. The objective is to achieve adequate shelter for rapidly growing populations and for the currently

deprived urban and rural poor through an enabling approach to shelter development and improvement

that is environmentally sound.

Activities

7.9. The following activities should be undertaken:

a. As a first step towards the goal of providing adequate shelter for all, all countries should take

immediate measures to provide shelter to their homeless poor, while the international

community and financial institutions should undertake actions to support the efforts of the

developing countries to provide shelter to the poor;

b. All countries should adopt and/or strengthen national shelter strategies, with targets based, as

appropriate, on the principles and recommendations contained in the Global Strategy for

Shelter to the Year 2000. People should be protected by law against unfair eviction from their

homes or land;

c. All countries should, as appropriate, support the shelter efforts of the urban and rural poor, the

unemployed and the no-income group by adopting and/or adapting existing codes and

regulations, to facilitate their access to land, finance and low-cost building materials and by

actively promoting the regularization and upgrading of informal settlements and urban slums

as an expedient measure and pragmatic solution to the urban shelter deficit;

d. All countries should, as appropriate, facilitate access of urban and rural poor to shelter by

adopting and utilizing housing and finance schemes and new innovative mechanisms adapted

to their circumstances;

e. All countries should support and develop environmentally compatible shelter strategies at

national, state/provincial and municipal levels through partnerships among the private, public

and community sectors and with the support of community-based organizations;

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f. All countries, especially developing ones, should, as appropriate, formulate and implement

programmes to reduce the impact of the phenomenon of rural to urban drift by improving

rural living conditions;

g. All countries, where appropriate, should develop and implement resettlement programmes

that address the specific problems of displaced populations in their respective countries;

h. All countries should, as appropriate, document and monitor the implementation of their

national shelter strategies by using, inter alia, the monitoring guidelines adopted by the

Commission on Human Settlements and the shelter performance indicators being produced

jointly by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) and the World Bank;

i. Bilateral and multilateral cooperation should be strengthened in order to support the

implementation of the national shelter strategies of developing countries;

j. Global progress reports covering national action and the support activities of international

organizations and bilateral donors should be produced and disseminated on a biennial basis,

as requested in the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.10. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $75 billion, including about $10 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.11. The requirements under this heading are addressed in each of the other programme areas included

in the present chapter.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.12. Developed countries and funding agencies should provide specific assistance to developing

countries in adopting an enabling approach to the provision of shelter for all, including the no-income

group, and covering research institutions and training activities for government officials, professionals,

communities and non-governmental organizations and by strengthening local capacity for the

development of appropriate technologies.

B. Improving human settlement management

Basis for action

7.13. By the turn of the century, the majority of the world’s population will be living in cities. While

urban settlements, particularly in developing countries, are showing many of the symptoms of the

global environment and development crisis, they nevertheless generate 60 per cent of gross national

product and, if properly managed, can develop the capacity to sustain their productivity, improve the

living conditions of their residents and manage natural resources in a sustainable way.

7.14. Some metropolitan areas extend over the boundaries of several political and/or administrative

entities (counties and municipalities) even though they conform to a continuous urban system. In many

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cases this political heterogeneity hinders the implementation of comprehensive environmental

management programmes.

Objective

7.15. The objective is to ensure sustainable management of all urban settlements, particularly in

developing countries, in order to enhance their ability to improve the living conditions of residents,

especially the marginalized and disenfranchised, thereby contributing to the achievement of national

economic development goals.

Activities

(a) Improving urban management

7.16. One existing framework for strengthening management is in the United Nations Development

Programme/World Bank/United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) Urban Management

Programme (UMP), a concerted global effort to assist developing countries in addressing urban

management issues. Its coverage should be extended to all interested countries during the period 1993-

2000. All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national plans, objectives and

priorities and with the assistance of non-governmental organizations and representatives of local

authorities, undertake the following activities at the national, state/provincial and local levels, with the

assistance of relevant programmes and support agencies:

a. Adopting and applying urban management guidelines in the areas of land management,

urban environmental management, infrastructure management and municipal finance and

administration;

b. Accelerating efforts to reduce urban poverty through a number of actions, including:

i. Generating employment for the urban poor, particularly women, through the

provision, improvement and maintenance of urban infrastructure and services

and the support of economic activities in the informal sector, such as repairs,

recycling, services and small commerce;

ii. Providing specific assistance to the poorest of the urban poor through, inter alia,

the creation of social infrastructure in order to reduce hunger and homelessness,

and the provision of adequate community services;

iii. Encouraging the establishment of indigenous community-based organizations,

private voluntary organizations and other forms of non-governmental entities

that can contribute to the efforts to reduce poverty and improve the quality of

life for low-income families;

c. Adopting innovative city planning strategies to address environmental and social issues

by:

i. Reducing subsidies on, and recovering the full costs of, environmental and other

services of high standard (e.g. water supply, sanitation, waste collection, roads,

telecommunications) provided to higher income neighbourhoods;

ii. Improving the level of infrastructure and service provision in poorer urban

areas;

d. Developing local strategies for improving the quality of life and the environment,

integrating decisions on land use and land management, investing in the public and

private sectors and mobilizing human and material resources, thereby promoting

employment generation that is environmentally sound and protective of human health.

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(b) Strengthening urban data systems

7.17. During the period 1993-2000 all countries should undertake, with the active participation of the

business sector as appropriate, pilot projects in selected cities for the collection, analysis and

subsequent dissemination of urban data, including environmental impact analysis, at the local,

state/provincial, national and international levels and the establishment of city data management

capabilities. 5/ United Nations organizations, such as Habitat, UNEP and UNDP, could provide

technical advice and model data management systems.

(c) Encouraging int ermediate city development

7.18. In order to relieve pressure on large urban agglomerations of developing countries, policies and

strategies should be implemented towards the development of intermediate cities that create

employment opportunities for unemployed labour in the rural areas and support rural-based economic

activities, although sound urban management is essential to ensure that urban sprawl does not expand

resource degradation over an ever wider land area and increase pressures to convert open space and

agricultural/buffer lands for development.

7.19. Therefore all countries should, as appropriate, conduct reviews of urbanization processes and

policies in order to assess the environmental impacts of growth and apply urban planning and

management approaches specifically suited to the needs, resource capabilities and characteristics of

their growing intermediate-sized cities. As appropriate, they should also concentrate on activities

aimed at facilitating the transition from rural to urban lifestyles and settlement patterns and at

promoting the development of small-scale economic activities, particularly the production of food, to

support local income generation and the production of intermediate goods and services for rural

hinterlands.

7.20. All cities, particularly those characterized by severe sustainable development problems, should, in

accordance with national laws, rules and regulations, develop and strengthen programmes aimed at

addressing such problems and guiding their development along a sustainable path. Some international

initiatives in support of such efforts, as in the Sustainable Cities Programme of Habitat and the

Healthy Cities Programme of WHO, should be intensified. Additional initiatives involving the World

Bank, the regional development banks and bilateral agencies, as well as other interested stakeholders,

particularly international and national representatives of local authorities, should be strengthened and

coordinated. Individual cities should, as appropriate:

a. Institutionalize a participatory approach to sustainable urban development, based on

a continuous dialogue between the actors involved in urban development (the public

sector, private sector and communities), especially women and indigenous people;

b. Improve the urban environment by promoting social organization and environmental

awareness through the participation of local communities in the identification of

public services needs, the provision of urban infrastructure, the enhancement of

public amenities and the protection and/or rehabilitation of older buildings, historic

precincts and other cultural artifacts. In addition, “green works” programmes should

be activated to create self-sustaining human development activities and both formal

and informal employment opportunities for low-income urban residents;

c. Strengthen the capacities of their local governing bodies to deal more effectively

with the broad range of developmental and environmental challenges associated with

rapid and sound urban growth through comprehensive approaches to planning that

recognize the individual needs of cities and are based on ecologically sound urban

design practices;

d. Participate in international “sustainable city networks” to exchange experiences and

mobilize national and international technical and financial support;

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e. Promote the formulation of environmentally sound and culturally sensitive tourism

programmes as a strategy for sustainable development of urban and rural settlements

and as a way of decentralizing urban development and reducing discrepancies among

regions;

f. Establish mechanisms, with the assistance of relevant international agencies, to

mobilize resources for local initiatives to improve environmental quality;

g. Empower community groups, non-governmental organizations and individuals to

assume the authority and responsibility for managing and enhancing their immediate

environment through participatory tools, techniques and approaches embodied in the

concept of environmental care.

7.21. Cities of all countries should reinforce cooperation among themselves and cities of the developed

countries, under the aegis of non-governmental organizations active in this field, such as the

International Union of Local Authorities (IULA), the International Council for Local Environmental

Initiatives (ICLEI) and the World Federation of Twin Cities.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.22. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $100 billion, including about $15 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.23. Developing countries should, with appropriate international assistance, consider focusing on

training and developing a cadre of urban managers, technicians, administrators and other relevant

stakeholders who can successfully manage environmentally sound urban development and growth and

are equipped with the skills necessary to analyse and adapt the innovative experiences of other cities.

For this purpose, the full range of training methods – from formal education to the use of the mass

media – should be utilized, as well as the “learning by doing” option.

7.24. Developing countries should also encourage technological training and research through joint

efforts by donors, non-governmental organizations and private business in such areas as the reduction

of waste, water quality, saving of energy, safe production of chemicals and less polluting

transportation.

7.25. Capacity-building activities carried out by all countries, assisted as suggested above, should go

beyond the training of individuals and functional groups to include institutional arrangements,

administrative routines, inter-agency linkages, information flows and consultative processes.

7.26. In addition, international efforts, such as the Urban Management Programme, in cooperation with

multilateral and bilateral agencies, should continue to assist the developing countries in their efforts to

develop a participatory structure by mobilizing the human resources of the private sector, non- governmental organizations and the poor, particularly women and the disadvantaged.

C. Promoting sustainable land-use planning and management

Basis for action

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7.27. Access to land resources is an essential component of sustainable low-impact lifestyles. Land

resources are the basis for (human) living systems and provide soil, energy, water and the opportunity

for all human activity. In rapidly growing urban areas, access to land is rendered increasingly difficult

by the conflicting demands of industry, housing, commerce, agriculture, land tenure structures and the

need for open spaces. Furthermore, the rising costs of urban land prevent the poor from gaining access

to suitable land. In rural areas, unsustainable practices, such as the exploitation of marginal lands and

the encroachment on forests and ecologically fragile areas by commercial interests and landless rural

populations, result in environmental degradation, as well as in diminishing returns for impoverished

rural settlers.

Objective

7.28. The objective is to provide for the land requirements of human settlement development through

environmentally sound physical planning and land use so as to ensure access to land to all households

and, where appropriate, the encouragement of communally and collectively owned and managed land.

6/ Particular attention should be paid to the needs of women and indigenous people for economic and

cultural reasons.

Activi ties

7.29. All countries should consider, as appropriate, undertaking a comprehensive national inventory of

their land resources in order to establish a land information system in which land resources will be

classified according to their most appropriate uses and environmentally fragile or disaster-prone areas

will be identified for special protection measures.

7.30. Subsequently, all countries should consider developing national land-resource management plans

to guide land-resource development and utilization and, to that end, should:

a. Establish, as appropriate, national legislation to guide the implementation of public

policies for environmentally sound urban development, land utilization, housing and for

the improved management of urban expansion;

b. Create, where appropriate, efficient and accessible land markets that meet community

development needs by, inter alia, improving land registry systems and streamlining

procedures in land transactions;

c. Develop fiscal incentives and land-use control measures, including land-use planning

solutions for a more rational and environmentally sound use of limited land resources;

d. Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community sectors in managing

land resources for human settlements development;

e. Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in existing urban and

rural settlements;

f. Establish appropriate forms of land tenure that provide security of tenure for all land- users, especially indigenous people, women, local communities, the low-income urban

dwellers and the rural poor;

g. Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban and rural poor, including credit

schemes for the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safe and

healthy shelter and infrastructure services;

h. Develop and support the implementation of improved land-management practices that

deal comprehensively with potentially competing land requirements for agriculture,

industry, transport, urban development, green spaces, preserves and other vital needs;

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i. Promote understanding among policy makers of the adverse consequences of unplanned

settlements in environmentally vulnerable areas and of the appropriate national and local

land-use and settlements policies required for this purpose.

7.31. At the international level, global coordination of land-resource management activities should be

strengthened by the various bilateral and multilateral agencies and programmes, such as UNDP, FAO,

the World Bank, the regional development banks, other interested organizations and the UNDP/World

Bank/Habitat Urban Management Programme, and action should be taken to promote the transfer of

applicable experience on sustainable land-management practices to and among developing countries.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.32. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $300 million

from the international community on grant or concessional t erms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.33. All countries, particularly developing countries, alone or in regional or subregional groupings,

should be given access to modern techniques of land-resource management, such as geographical

information systems, satellite photography/imagery and other remote-sensing technologies.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.34. Environmentally focused training activities in sustainable land-resources planning and

management should be undertaken in all countries, with developing countries being given assistance

through international support and funding agencies in order to:

a. Strengthen the capacity of national, state/provincial and local educational research and

training institutions to provide formal training of land-management technicians and

professionals;

b. Facilitate the organizational review of government ministries and agencies responsible

for land questions, in order to devise more efficient mechanisms of land-resource

management, and carry out periodic in-service refresher courses for the managers and

staff of such ministries and agencies in order to familiarize them with up-to-date land- resource-management technologies;

c. Where appropriate, provide such agencies with modern equipment, such as computer

hardware and software and survey equipment;

d. Strengthen existing programmes and promote an international and interregional exchange

of information and experience in land management through the establishment of

professional associations in land-management sciences and related activities, such as

workshops and seminars.

D. Promoting the integrated provision of environmental infrastructure: water, sanitation, drainage

and solid-waste management

Basis for action

7.35. The sustainability of urban development is defined by many parameters relating to the availability

of water supplies, air quality and the provision of environmental infrastructure for sanitation and waste

management. As a result of the density of users, urbanization, if properly managed, offers unique

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opportunities for the supply of sustainable environmental infrastructure through adequate pricing

policies, educational programmes and equitable access mechanisms that are economically and

environmentally sound. In most developing countries, however, the inadequacy and lack of

environmental infrastructure is responsible for widespread ill-health and a large number of preventable

deaths each year. In those countries conditions are set to worsen due to growing needs that exceed the

capacity of Governments to respond adequately.

7.36. An integrated approach to the provision of environmentally sound infrastructure in human

settlements, in particular for the urban and rural poor, is an investment in sustainable development that

can improve the quality of life, increase productivity, improve health and reduce the burden of

investments in curative medicine and poverty alleviation.

7.37. Most of the activities whose management would be improved by an integrated approach, are

covered in Agenda 21 as follows: chapter 6 (Protecting and promoting human health conditions),

chapters 9 (Protecting the atmosphere), 18 (Protecting the quality and supply of freshwater resources)

and 21 (Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues).

Objective

7.38. The objective is to ensure the provision of adequate environmental infrastructure facilities in all

settlements by the year 2025. The achievement of this objective would require that all developing

countries incorporate in their national strategies programmes to build the necessary technical, financial

and human resource capacity aimed at ensuring better integration of infrastructure and environmental

planning by the year 2000.

Activities

7.39. All countries should assess the environmental suitability of infrastructure in human settlements,

develop national goals for sustainable management of waste, and implement environmentally sound

technology to ensure that the environment, human health and quality of life are protected. Settlement

infrastructure and environmental programmes designed to promote an integrated human settlements

approach to the planning, development, maintenance and management of environmental infrastructure

(water supply, sanitation, drainage, solid-waste management) should be strengthened with the

assistance of bilateral and multilateral agencies. Coordination among these agencies and with

collaboration from international and national representatives of local authorities, the private sector and

community groups should also be strengthened. The activities of all agencies engaged in providing

environmental infrastructure should, where possible, reflect an ecosystem or metropolitan area

approach to settlements and should include monitoring, applied research, capacity-building, transfer of

appropriate technology and technical cooperation among the range of programme activities.

7.40. Developing countries should be assisted at the national and local levels in adopting an integrated

approach to the provision of water supply, energy, sanitation, drainage and solid-waste management,

and external funding agencies should ensure that this approach is applied in particular to

environmental infrastructure improvement in informal settlements based on regulations and standards

that take into account the living conditions and resources of the communities to be served.

7.41. All countries should, as appropriate, adopt the following principles for the provision of

environmental infrastructure:

a. Adopt policies that minimize if not altogether avoid environmental damage, whenever

possible;

b. Ensure that relevant decisions are preceded by environmental impact assessments and

also take into account the costs of any ecological consequences;

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c. Promote development in accordance with indigenous practices and adopt technologies

appropriate to local conditions;

d. Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of infrastructure services, while at

the same time recognizing the need to find suitable approaches (including subsidies) to

extend basic services to all households;

e. Seek joint solutions to environmental problems that affect several localities.

7.42. The dissemination of information from existing programmes should be facilitated and encouraged

among interested countries and local institutions.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.43. The Conference secretariat has estimated most of the costs of implementing the activities of this

programme in other chapters. The secretariat estimates the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

technical assistance from the international community grant or concessional terms to be about $50

million. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by

Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend

upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.44. Scientific and technological means within the existing programmes should be coordinated

wherever possible and should:

a. Accelerate research in the area of integrated policies of environmental infrastructure

programmes and projects based on cost/benefit analysis and overall environmental

impact;

b. Promote methods of assessing “effective demand”, utilizing environment and

development data as criteria for selecting technology.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.45. With the assistance and support of funding agencies, all countries should, as appropriate,

undertake training and popular participation programmes aimed at:

a. Raising awareness of the means, approaches and benefits of the provision of

environmental infrastructure facilities, especially among indigenous people, women, low- income groups and the poor;

b. Developing a cadre of professionals with adequate skills in integrated infrastructural

service planning and maintenance of resource-efficient, environmentally sound and

socially acceptable systems;

c. Strengthening the institutional capacity of local authorities and administrators in the

integrated provision of adequate infrastructure services in partnership with local

communities and the private sector;

d. Adopting appropriate legal and regulatory instruments, including cross-subsidy

arrangements, to extend the benefits of adequate and affordable environmental

infrastructure to unserved population groups, especially the poor.

E. Promoting sustainable energy and transport systems in human settlements

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Basis for action

7.46. Most of the commercial and non-commercial energy produced today is used in and for human

settlements, and a substantial percentage of it is used by the household sector. Developing countries

are at present faced with the need to increase their energy production to accelerate development and

raise the living standards of their populations, while at the same time reducing energy production costs

and energy -related pollution. Increasing the efficiency of energy use to reduce its polluting effects and

to promote the use of renewable energies must be a priority in any action taken to protect the urban

environment.

7.47. Developed countries, as the largest consumers of energy, are faced with the need for energy

planning and management, promoting renewable and alternate sources of energy, and evaluating the

life-cycle costs of current systems and practices as a result of which many metropolitan areas are

suffering from pervasive air quality problems related to ozone, particulate matters and carbon

monoxide. The causes have much to do with technological inadequacies and with an increasing fuel

consumption generated by inefficiencies, high demographic and industrial concentrations and a rapid

expansion in the number of motor vehicles.

7.48. Transport accounts for about 30 per cent of commercial energy consumption and for about 60 per

cent of total global consumption of liquid petroleum. In developing countries, rapid motorization and

insufficient investments in urban-transport planning, traffic management and infrastructure, are

creating increasing problems in terms of accidents and injury, health, noise, congestion and loss of

productivity similar to those occurring in many developed countries. All of these problems have a

severe impact on urban populations, particularly the low-income and no-income groups.

Objectives

7.49. The objectives are to extend the provision of more energy-efficient technology and

alternative/renewable energy for human settlements and to reduce negative impacts of energy

production and use on human health and on the environment.

Activities

7.50. The principal activities relevant to this programme area are included in chapter 9 (Protection of the

atmosphere), programme area B, subprogramme 1 (Energy development, efficiency and consumption)

and subprogramme 2 (Transportation).

7.51. A comprehensive approach to human settlements development should include the promotion of

sustainable energy development in all countries, as follows:

a. Developing countries, in particular, should:

i. Formulate national action programmes to promote and support

reafforestation and national forest regeneration with a view to achieving

sustained provision of the biomass energy needs of the low-income groups

in urban areas and the rural poor, in particular women and children;

ii. Formulate national action programmes to promote integrated development

of energy-saving and renewable energy technologies, particularly for the

use of solar, hydro, wind and biomass sources;

iii. Promote wide dissemination and commercialization of renewable energy

technologies through suitable measures, inter alia, fiscal and technology

transfer mechanisms;

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iv. Carry out information and training programmes directed at manufacturers

and users in order to promote energy -saving techniques and energy -efficient

appliances;

b. International organizations and bilateral donors should:

i. Support developing countries in implementing national energy programmes

in order to achieve widespread use of energy -saving and renewable energy

technologies, particularly the use of solar, wind, biomass and hydro sources;

ii. Provide access to research and development results to increase energy-use

efficiency levels in human settlements.

7.52. Promoting efficient and environmentally sound urban transport systems in all countries should be

a comprehensive approach to urban-transport planning and management. To this end, all countries

should:

a. Integrate land-use and transportation planning to encourage development patterns

that reduce transport demand;

b. Adopt urban-transport programmes favouring high-occupancy public transport in

countries, as appropriate;

c. Encourage non-motorized modes of transport by providing safe cycleways and

footways in urban and suburban centres in countries, as appropriate;

d. Devote particular attention to effective traffic management, efficient operation of

public transport and maintenance of transport infrastructure;

e. Promote the exchange of information among countries and representatives of local

and metropolitan areas;

f. Re-evaluate the present consumption and production patterns in order to reduce the

use of energy and national resources.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.53. The Conference secretariat has estimated the costs of implementing the activities of this

programme in chapter 9 (Protection of the atmosphere).

(b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.54. In order to enhance the skills of energy service and transport professionals and institutions, all

countries should, as appropriate:

a. Provide on-the-job and other training of government officials, planners, traffic

engineers and managers involved in the energy -service and transport section;

b. Raise public awareness of the environmental impacts of transport and travel

behaviour through mass media campaigns and support for non-governmental and

community initiatives promoting the use of non-motorized transport, shared driving

and improved traffic safety measures;

c. Strengthen regional, national, state/provincial, and private sector institutions that

provide education and training on energy service and urban transport planning and

management.

F. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas

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Basis for action

7.55. Natural disasters cause loss of life, disruption of economic activities and urban productivity,

particularly for highly susceptible low-income groups, and environmental damage, such as loss of

fertile agricultural land and contamination of water resources, and can lead to major resettlement of

populations. Over the past two decades, they are estimated to have caused some 3 million deaths and

affected 800 million people. Global economic losses have been estimated by the Office of the United

Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator to be in the range of $30-50 billion per year.

7.56. The General Assembly, in resolution 44/236, proclaimed the 1990s as the International Decade for

Natural Disaster Reduction. The goals of the Decade 7/ bear relevance to the objectives of the present

programme area.

7.57. In addition, there is an urgent need to address the prevention and reduction of man-made disasters

and/or disasters caused by, inter alia, industries, unsafe nuclear power generation and toxic wastes (see

chapter 6 of Agenda 21).

Objective

7.58. The objective is to enable all countries, in particular those that are disaster-prone, to mitigate the

negative impact of natural and man-made disasters on human settlements, national economies and the

environment.

Activities

7.59. Three distinct areas of activity are foreseen under this programme area, namely, the development

of a “culture of safety”, pre-disaster planning and post-disaster reconstruction.

(a) Developing a culture of safety

7.60. To promote a “culture of safety” in all countries, especially those that are disaster-prone, the

following activities should be carried out:

a. Completing national and local studies on the nature and occurrence of natural

disasters, their impact on people and economic activities, the effects of inadequate

construction and land use in hazard-prone areas, and the social and economic

advantages of adequate pre-disaster planning;

b. Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaigns through all available

media, translating the above knowledge into information easily comprehensible to

the general public and to the populations directly exposed to hazards;

c. Strengthening, and/or developing global, regional, national and local early warning

systems to alert populations to impending disasters;

d. Identifying industrially based environmental disaster areas at the national and

international levels and implementing strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of these

areas through, inter alia:

i. Restructuring of the economic activities and promoting new job

opportunities in environmentally sound sectors;

ii. Promoting close collaboration between governmental and local authorities,

local communities and non-governmental organizations and private

business;

iii. Developing and enforcing strict environmental control standards.

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(b) Developing pre-disaster planning

7.61. Pre-disaster planning should form an integral part of human settlement planning in all countries.

The following should be included:

a. Undertaking complete multi-hazard research into risk and vulnerability of human

settlements and settlement infrastructure, including water and sewerage,

communication and transportation networks, as one type of risk reduction may

increase vulnerability to another (e.g., an earthquake-resistant house made of wood

will be more vulnerable to wind storms);

b. Developing methodologies for determining risk and vulnerability within specific

human settlements and incorporating risk and vulnerability reduction into the human

settlement planning and management process;

c. Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements to areas not

prone to hazards;

d. Preparing guidelines on location, design and operation of potentially hazardous

industries and activities;

e. Developing tools (legal, economic etc.) to encourage disaster-sensitive development,

including means of ensuring that limitations on development options are not punitive

to owners, or incorporate alternative means of compensation;

f. Further developing and disseminating information on disaster-resistant building

materials and construction technologies for buildings and public works in general;

g. Developing training programmes for contractors and builders on disaster-resistant

construction methods. Some programmes should be directed particularly to small

enterprises, which build the great majority of housing and other small buildings in

the developing countries, as well as to the rural populations, which build their own

houses;

h. Developing training programmes for emergency site managers, non-governmental

organizations and community groups which cover all aspects of disaster mitigation,

including urban search and rescue, emergency communications, early warning

techniques, and pre-disaster planning;

i. Developing procedures and practices to enable local communities to receive

information about hazardous installations or situations in these areas, and facilitate

their participation in early warning and disaster abatement and response procedures

and plans;

j. Preparing action plans for the reconstruction of settlements, especially the

reconstruction of community life-lines.

(c) Initiating post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation planning

7.62. The international community, as a major partner in post-reconstruction and rehabilitation, should

ensure that the countries involved derive the greatest benefits from the funds allocated by undertaking

the following activities:

a. Carrying out research on past experiences on the social and economic aspects of

post-disaster reconstruction and adopting effective strategies and guidelines for post- disaster reconstruction, with particular focus on development-focused strategies in

the allocation of scarce reconstruction resources, and on the opportunities that post- disaster reconstruction provides to introduce sustainable settlement patterns;

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b. Preparing and disseminating international guidelines for adaptation to national and

local needs;

c. Supporting efforts of national Governments to initiate contingency planning, with

participation of affected communities, for post-disaster reconstruction and

rehabilitation.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.63. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $50 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.64. Scientists and engineers specializing in this field in both developing and developed countries

should collaborate with urban and regional planners in order to provide the basic knowledge and

means to mitigate losses owing to disasters as well as environmentally inappropriate development.

(c) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.65. Developing countries should conduct training programmes on disaster-resistant construction

methods for contractors and builders, who build the majority of housing in the developing countries.

This should focus on the small business enterprises, which build the majority of housing in the

developing countries.

7.66. Training programmes should be extended to government officials and planners and community

and non-governmental organizations to cover all aspects of disaster mitigation, such as early warning

techniques, pre-disaster planning and construction, post-disaster construction and rehabilitation.

G. Promoting sustainable construction industry activities

Basis for action

7.67. The activities of the construction sector are vital to the achievement of the national socio- economic development goals of providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. However, they can

be a major source of environmental damage through depletion of the natural resource base,

degradation of fragile eco-zones, chemical pollution and the use of building materials harmful to

human health.

Objectives

7.68. The objectives are, first, to adopt policies and technologies and to exchange information on them

in order to enable the construction sector to meet human settlement development goals, while avoiding

harmful side-effects on human health and on the biosphere, and, second, to enhance the employment- generation capacity of the construction sector. Governments should work in close collaboration with

the private sector in achieving these objectives.

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Activities

7.69. All countries should, as appropriate and in accordance with national plans, objectives and

priorities:

a. Establish and strengthen indigenous building materials industry, based, as much as

possible, on inputs of locally available natural resources;

b. Formulate programmes to enhance the utilization of local materials by the construction

sector by expanding technical support and incentive schemes for increasing the

capabilities and economic viability of small-scale and informal operatives which make

use of these materials and traditional construction techniques;

c. Adopt standards and other regulatory measures which promote the increased use of

energy -efficient designs and technologies and sustainable utilization of natural resources

in an economically and environmentally appropriate way;

d. Formulate appropriate land-use policies and introduce planning regulations specially

aimed at the protection of eco-sensitive zones against physical disruption by construction

and construction-related activities;

e. Promote the use of labour-intensive construction and maintenance technologies which

generate employment in the construction sector for the underemployed labour force

found in most large cities, while at the same time promoting the development of skills in

the construction sector;

f. Develop policies and practices to reach the informal sector and self-help housing builders

by adopting measures to increase the affordability of building materials on the part of the

urban and rural poor, through, inter alia, credit schemes and bulk procurement of building

materials for sale to small-scale builders and communities.

7.70. All countries should:

a. Promote the free exchange of information on the entire range of environmental and health

aspects of construction, including the development and dissemination of databases on the

adverse environmental effects of building materials through the collaborative efforts of

the private and public sectors;

b. Promote the development and dissemination of databases on the adverse environmental

and health effects of building materials and introduce legislation and financial incentives

to promote recycling of energy -intensive materials in the construction industry and

conservation of waste energy in building-materials production methods;

c. Promote the use of economic instruments, such as product charges, to discourage the use

of construction materials and products that create pollution during their life cycle;

d. Promote information exchange and appropriate technology transfer among all countries,

with particular attention to developing countries, for resource management in

construction, particularly for non-renewable resources;

e. Promote research in construction industries and related activities, and establish and

strengthen institutions in this sector.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.71. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $40 billion, including about $4 billion from

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the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.72. Developing countries should be assisted by international support and funding agencies in

upgrading the technical and managerial capacities of the small entrepreneur and the vocational skills

of operatives and supervisors in the building materials industry, using a variety of training methods.

These countries should also be assisted in developing programmes to encourage the use of non-waste

and clean technologies through appropriate transfer of technology.

7.73. General education programmes should be developed in all countries, as appropriate, to increase

builder awareness of available sustainable technologies.

7.74. Local authorities are called upon to play a pioneering role in promoting the increased use of

environmentally sound building materials and construction technologies, e.g., by pursuing an

innovative procurement policy.

H. Promoting human resource development and capacity-building for human settlements

development

Basis for action

7.75. Most countries, in addition to shortcomings in the availability of specialized expertise in the areas

of housing, settlement management, land management, infrastructure, construction, energy, transport,

and pre-disaster planning and reconstruction, face three cross-sectoral human resource development

and capacity-building shortfalls. First is the absence of an enabling policy environment capable of

integrating the resources and activities of the public sector, the private sector and the community, or

social sector; second is the weakness of specialized training and research institutions; and third is the

insufficient capacity for technical training and assistance for low-income communities, both urban and

rural.

Objective

7.76. The objective is to improve human resource development and capacity-building in all countries by

enhancing the personal and institutional capacity of all actors, particularly indigenous people and

women, involved in human settlement development. In this regard, account should be taken of

traditional cultural practices of indigenous people and their relationship to the environment.

Activities

7.77. Specific human resource development and capacity-building activities have been built into each of

the programme areas of this chapter. More generally, however, additional steps should be taken to

reinforce those activities. In order to do so, all countries, as appropriate, should take the following

action:

a. Strengthening the development of human resources and of capacities of public sector

institutions through technical assistance and international cooperation so as to

achieve by the year 2000 substantial improvement in the efficiency of governmental

activities;

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b. Creating an enabling policy environment supportive of the partnership between the

public, private and community sectors;

c. Providing enhanced training and technical assistance to institutions providing

training for technicians, professionals and administrators, and appointed, elected and

professional members of local governments and strengthening their capacity to

address priority training needs, particularly in regard to social, economic and

environmental aspects of human settlements development;

d. Providing direct assistance for human settlement development at the community

level, inter alia, by:

i. Strengthening and promoting programmes for social mobilization and

raising awareness of the potential of women and youth in human

settlements activities;

ii. Facilitating coordination of the activities of women, youth, community

groups and non-governmental organizations in human settlements

development;

iii. Promoting research on women’s programmes and other groups, and

evaluating progress made with a view to identifying bottlenecks and needed

assistance;

e. Promoting the inclusion of integrated environmental management into general local

government activities.

7.78. Both international organizations and non-governmental organizations should support the above

activities by, inter alia, strengthening subregional training institutions, providing updated training

materials and disseminating the results of successful human resource and capacity-building activities,

programmes and projects.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

7.79. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $65 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

7.80. Both formal training and non-formal types of human resource development and capacity-building

programmes should be combined, and use should be made of user-oriented training methods, up -to- date training materials and modern audio-visual communication systems.

Notes

1/ No aggregate figures are available on internal expenditure or official development assistance on human

settlements. However, data available in the World Development Report, 1991, for 16 low-income

developing countries show that the percentage of central government expenditure on housing, amenities

and social security and welfare for 1989 averaged 5.6 per cent, with a high of 15.1 per cent in the case of

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Sri Lanka, which has embarked on a vigorous housing programme. In OECD industrialized countries,

during the same year, the percentage of central government expenditure on housing, amenities and social

security and welfare ranged from a minimum of 29.3 per cent to a maximum of 49.4 per cent, with an

average of 39 per cent (World Bank, World Development Report, 1991, World Development Indicators,

table 11 (Washington, D.C., 1991)).

2/ See the report of the Director-General for Development and International Economic Cooperation

containing preliminary statistical data on operational activities of the United Nations system for 1988

(A/44/324-E/1989/106/Add.4, annex).

3/ World Bank, Annual Report, 1991 (Washington, D.C., 1991).

4/ UNDP, “Reported investment commitments related to UNDP-assisted projects, 1988”, table 1, “Sectoral

distribution of investment commitment in 1988-1989″.

5/ A pilot programme of this type, the City Data Programme (CDP), is already in operation in the United

Nations Centre on Human Settlements (Habitat) aimed at the production and dissemination to participating

cities of microcomputer application software designed to store, process and retrieve city data for local,

national and international exchange and dissemination.

6/ This calls for integrated land-resource management policies, which are also addressed in chapter 10 of

Agenda 21 (Integrated approach to planning and management of land resources).

7/ The goals of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, set out in the annex to General

Assembly resolution 44/236, are as follows:

a. To improve the capacity of each country to mitigate the effects of natural disasters expeditiously

and effectively, paying special attention to assisting developing countries in the assessment of

disaster damage potential and in the establishment of early warning systems and disaster-resistant

structures when and where needed;

b. To devise appropriate guidelines and strategies for applying existing scientific and technical

knowledge, taking into account the cultural and economic diversity among nations;

c. To foster scientific and engineering endeavours aimed at closing critical gaps in knowledge in

order to reduce loss of life and property;

d. To disseminate existing and new technical information related to measures for the assessment,

prediction and mitigation of natural disasters;

e. To develop measures for the assessment, prediction, prevention and mitigation of natural disasters

through programmes of technical assistance and technology transfer, demonstration projects, and

education and training, tailored to specific disasters and locations, and to evaluate the

effectiveness of those programmes.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 8

INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING

8.1. This chapter contains the following programme areas:

a. Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and management levels;

b. Providing an effective legal and regulatory framework;

c. Making effective use of economic instruments and market and other incentives;

d. Establishing systems for integrated environmental and economic accounting.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Integrating environment and development at the policy, planning and management levels

Basis for action

8.2. Prevailing systems for decision-making in many countries tend to separate economic, social and

environmental factors at the policy, planning and management levels. This influences the actions of all

groups in society, including Governments, industry and individuals, and has important implications for

the efficiency and sustainability of development. An adjustment or even a fundamental reshaping of

decision-making, in the light of country-specific conditions, may be necessary if environment and

development is to be put at the centre of economic and political decision-making, in effect achieving a

full integration of these factors. In recent years, some Governments have also begun to make

significant changes in the institutional structures of government in order to enable more systematic

consideration of the environment when decisions are made on economic, social, fiscal, energy,

agricultural, transportation, trade and other policies, as well as the implications of policies in these

areas for the environment. New forms of dialogue are also being developed for achieving better

integration among national and local government, industry, science, environmental groups and the

public in the process of developing effective approaches to environment and development. The

responsibility for bringing about changes lies with Governments in partnership with the private sector

and local authorities, and in collaboration with national, regional and international organizations,

including in particular UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank. Exchange of experience between countries

can also be significant. National plans, goals and objectives, national rules, regulations and law, and

the specific situation in which different countries are placed are the overall framework in which such

integration takes place. In this context, it must be borne in mind that environmental standards may

pose severe economic and social costs if they are uniformly applied in developing countries.

Objectives

8.3. The overall objective is to improve or restructure the decision-making process so that consideration of

socio-economic and environmental issues is fully integrated and a broader range of public

participation assured. Recognizing that countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with

their prevailing conditions, needs, national plans, policies and programmes, the following objectives

are proposed:

a. To conduct a national review of economic, sectoral and environmental policies,

strategies and plans to ensure the progressive integration of environmental and

developmental issues;

b. To strengthen institutional structures to allow the full integration of environmental

and developmental issues, at all levels of decision-making;

c. To develop or improve mechanisms to facilitate the involvement of concerned

individuals, groups and organizations in decision-making at all levels;

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d. To establish domestically determined procedures to integrate environment and

development issues in decision-making.

Activities

(a) Improving decision-making processes

8.4. The primary need is to integrate environmental and developmental decision-making processes. To do

this, Governments should conduct a national review and, where appropriate, improve the processes of

decision-making so as to achieve the progressive integration of economic, social and environmental

issues in the pursuit of development that is economically efficient, socially equitable and responsible

and environmentally sound. Countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with their

national plans, policies and programmes for the following activities:

a. Ensuring the integrat ion of economic, social and environmental considerations in

decision-making at all levels and in all ministries;

b. Adopting a domestically formulated policy framework that reflects a long-term

perspective and cross-sectoral approach as the basis for decisions, taking account of

the linkages between and within the various political, economic, social and

environmental issues involved in the development process;

c. Establishing domestically determined ways and means to ensure the coherence of

sectoral, economic, social and environmental policies, plans and policy instruments,

including fiscal measures and the budget; these mechanisms should apply at various

levels and bring together those interested in the development process;

d. Monitoring and evaluating the development process systematically, conducting

regular reviews of the state of human resources development, economic and social

conditions and trends, the state of the environment and natural resources; this could

be complemented by annual environment and development reviews, with a view to

assessing sustainable development achievements by the various sectors and

departments of government;

e. Ensuring transparency of, and accountability for, the environmental implications of

economic and sectoral policies;

f. Ensuring access by the public to relevant information, facilitating the reception of

public views and allowing for effective participation.

(b) Improving planning and management systems

8.5. To support a more integrated approach to decision-making, the data systems and analytical methods

used to support such decision-making processes may need to be improved. Governments, in

collaboration, where appropriate, with national and international organizations, should review the

status of the planning and management system and, where necessary, modify and strengthen

procedures so as to facilitate the integrated consideration of social, economic and environmental

issues. Countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with their national plans, policies and

programmes for the following activities:

a. Improving the use of data and information at all stages of planning and management,

making systematic and simultaneous use of social, economic, developmental,

ecological and environmental data; analysis should stress interactions and

synergisms; a broad range of analytical methods should be encouraged so as to

provide various points of view;

b. Adopting comprehensive analytical procedures for prior and simultaneous

assessment of the impacts of decisions, including the impacts within and among the

economic, social and environmental spheres; these procedures should extend beyond

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the project level to policies and programmes; analysis should also include assessment

of costs, benefits and risks;

c. Adopting flexible and integrative planning approaches that allow the consideration

of multiple goals and enable adjustment of changing needs; integrative area

approaches at the ecosystem or watershed level can assist in this approach;

d. Adopting integrated management systems, particularly for the management of

natural resources; traditional or indigenous methods should be studied and

considered wherever they have proved effective; women’s traditional roles should

not be marginalized as a result of the introduction of new management systems;

e. Adopting integrated approaches to sustainable development at the regional level,

including transboundary areas, subject to the requirements of particular

circumstances and needs;

f. Using policy instruments (legal/regulatory and economic) as a tool for planning and

management, seeking incorporation of efficiency criteria in decisions; instruments

should be regularly reviewed and adapted to ensure that they continue to be

effective;

g. Delegating planning and management responsibilities to the lowest level of public

authority consistent with effective action; in particular the advantages of effective

and equitable opportunities for participation by women should be discussed;

h. Establishing procedures for involving local communities in contingency planning for

environmental and industrial accidents, and maintaining an open exchange of

information on local hazards.

(c) Data and information

8.6. Countries could develop systems for monitoring and evaluation of progress towards achieving

sustainable development by adopting indicators that measure changes across economic, social and

environmental dimensions.

(d) Adopting a national strategy for sustainable development

8.7. Governments, in cooperation, where appropriate, with international organizations, should adopt a

national strategy for sustainable development based on, inter alia, the implementation of decisions

taken at the Conference, particularly in respect of Agenda 21. This strategy should build upon and

harmonize the various sectoral economic, social and environment al policies and plans that are

operating in the country. The experience gained through existing planning exercises such as national

reports for the Conference, national conservation strategies and environment action plans should be

fully used and incorporated into a country-driven sustainable development strategy. Its goals should be

to ensure socially responsible economic development while protecting the resource base and the

environment for the benefit of future generations. It should be developed through the widest possible

participation. It should be based on a thorough assessment of the current situation and initiatives.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

8.8. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $50 million from the international community on grant or

concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been

reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,

will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for

implementation.

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(b) Researching environment and development interactions

8.9. Governments, in collaboration with the national and international scientific community and in

cooperation with international organizations, as appropriate, should intensify efforts to clarify the

interactions between and within social, economic and environmental considerations. Research should

be undertaken with the explicit objective of assisting policy decisions and providing recommendations

on improving management practices.

(c) Enhancing education and training

8.10. Countries, in cooperation, where appropriate, with national, regional or international

organizations, should ensure that essential human resources exist, or be developed, to undertake the

integration of environment and development at various stages of the decision-making and

implementation process. To do this, they should improve education and technical training, particularly

for women and girls, by including interdisciplinary approaches, as appropriate, in technical,

vocational, university and other curricula. They should also undertake systematic training of

government personnel, planners and managers on a regular basis, giving priority to the requisite

integrative approaches and planning and management techniques that are suited to country-specific

conditions.

(d) Promoting public awareness

8.11. Countries, in cooperation with national institutions and groups, the media and the international

community, should promote awareness in the public at large, as well as in specialized circles, of the

importance of considering environment and development in an integrated manner, and should establish

mechanisms for facilitating a direct exchange of information and views with the public. Priority should

be given to highlighting the responsibilities and potential contributions of different social groups.

(e) Strengthen national institutional capacity

8.12. Governments, in cooperation, where appropriate, with international organizations, should

strengthen national institutional capability and capacity to integrate social, economic, developmental

and environmental issues at all levels of development decision-making and implementation. Attention

should be given to moving away from narrow sectoral approaches, progressing towards full cross- sectoral coordination and cooperation.

B. Providing an effective legal and regulatory framework

Basis for action

8.13. Laws and regulations suited to country -specific conditions are among the most important

instruments for transforming environment and development policies into action, not only through

“command and control” methods, but also as a normative framework for economic planning and

market instruments. Yet, although the volume of legal texts in this field is steadily increasing, much of

the law-making in many countries seems to be ad hoc and piecemeal, or has not been endowed with

the necessary institutional machinery and authority for enforcement and timely adjustment.

8.14. While there is continuous need for law improvement in all countries, many developing countries

have been affected by shortcomings of laws and regulations. To effectively integrate environment and

development in the policies and practices of each country, it is essential to develop and implement

integrated, enforceable and effective laws and regulations that are based upon sound social, ecological,

economic and scientific principles. It is equally critical to develop workable programmes to review

and enforce compliance with the laws, regulations and standards that are adopted. Technical support

may be needed for many countries to accomplish these goals. Technical cooperation requirements in

this field include legal information, advisory services and specialized training and institutional

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capacity-building.

8.15. The enactment and enforcement of laws and regulations (at the regional, national, state/provincial

or local/municipal level) are also essential for the implementation of most international agreements in

the field of environment and development, as illustrated by the frequent treaty obligation to report on

legislative measures. The survey of existing agreements undertaken in the context of conference

preparations has indicated problems of compliance in this respect, and the need for improved national

implementation and, where appropriate, related technical assistance. In developing their national

priorities, countries should take account of their international obligations.

Objectives

8.16. The overall objective is to promote, in the light of country -specific conditions, the integration of

environment and development policies through appropriate legal and regulatory policies, instruments

and enforcement mechanisms at the national, state, provincial and local level. Recognizing that

countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with their needs and national and, where

appropriate, regional plans, policies and programmes, the following objectives are proposed:

a. To disseminate information on effective legal and regulatory innovations in the field

of environment and development, including appropriate instruments and compliance

incentives, with a view to encouraging their wider use and adoption at the national,

state, provincial and local level;

b. To support countries that request it in their national efforts to modernize and

strengthen the policy and legal framework of governance for sustainable

development, having due regard for local social values and infrastructures;

c. To encourage the development and implementation of national, state, provincial and

local programmes that assess and promote compliance and respond appropriately to

non-compliance.

Activities

(a) Making laws and regulations more effective

8.17. Governments, with the support, where appropriate, of competent international organizations,

should regularly assess the laws and regulations enacted and the related institutional/administrative

machinery established at t he national/state and local/municipal level in the field of environment and

sustainable development, with a view to rendering them effective in practice. Programmes for this

purpose could include the promotion of public awareness, preparation and distribution of guidance

material, and specialized training, including workshops, seminars, education programmes and

conferences, for public officials who design, implement, monitor and enforce laws and regulations.

(b) Establishing judicial and administrative procedures

8.18. Governments and legislators, with the support, where appropriate, of competent international

organizations, should establish judicial and administrative procedures for legal redress and remedy of

actions affecting environment and development that may be unlawful or infringe on rights under the

law, and should provide access to individuals, groups and organizations with a recognized legal

interest.

(c) Providing legal reference and support services

8.19. Competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations could cooperate to provide

Governments and legislators, upon request, with an integrated programme of environment and

development law (sustainable development law) services, carefully adapted to the specific

requirements of the recipient legal and administrative systems. Such systems could usefully include

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assistance in the preparation of comprehensive inventories and reviews of national legal systems. Past

experience has demonstrated the usefulness of combining specialized legal information services with

legal expert advice. Within the United Nations system, closer cooperation among all agencies

concerned would avoid duplication of databases and facilitate division of labour. These agencies could

examine the possibility and merit of performing reviews of selected national legal systems.

(d) Establishing a cooperative training network for sustainable development law

8.20. Competent international and academic institutions could, within agreed frameworks, cooperate to

provide, especially for trainees from developing countries, postgraduate programmes and in-service

training facilities in environment and development law. Such training should address both the effective

application and the progressive improvement of applicable laws, the related skills of negotiating,

drafting and mediation, and the training of trainers. Intergovernmental and non-governmental

organizations already active in this field could cooperate with related university programmes to

harmonize curriculum planning and to offer an optimal range of options to interested Governments

and potential sponsors.

(e) Developing effective national programmes for reviewing and enforcing compliance with national, state,

provincial and local laws on environment and development

8.21. Each country should develop integrated strategies to maximize compliance with its laws and

regulations relating to sustainable development, with assistance from international organizations and

other countries as appropriate. The strategies could include:

a. Enforceable, effective laws, regulations and standards that are based on sound

economic, social and environmental principles and appropriate risk assessment,

incorporating sanctions designed to punish violations, obtain redress and deter future

violations;

b. Mechanisms for promoting compliance;

c. Institutional capacity for collecting compliance data, regularly reviewing

compliance, detecting violations, establishing enforcement priorities, undertaking

effective enforcement, and conducting periodic evaluations of the effectiveness of

compliance and enforcement programmes;

d. Mechanisms for appropriate involvement of individuals and groups in the

development and enforcement of laws and regulations on environment and

development.

e. National monitoring of legal follow-up to internat ional instruments

8.22. Contracting parties to international agreements, in consultation with the appropriate secretariats of

relevant international conventions as appropriate, should improve practices and procedures for

collecting information on legal and regulatory measures taken. Contracting parties to international

agreements could undertake sample surveys of domestic follow-up action subject to agreement by the

sovereign States concerned.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

8.23. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $6 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

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are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

8.24. The programme relies essentially on a continuation of ongoing work for legal data collection,

translation and assessment. Closer cooperation between existing databases may be expected to lead to

better division of labour (e.g., in geographical coverage of national legislative gazettes and other

reference sources) and to improved standardization and compatibility of data, as appropriate.

(c) Human resource development

8.25. Participation in training is expected to benefit practitioners from developing countries and to

enhance training opportunities for women. Demand for this type of postgraduate and in-service

training is known to be high. The seminars, workshops and conferences on review and enforcement

that have been held to dat e have been very successful and well attended. The purpose of these efforts

is to develop resources (both human and institutional) to design and implement effective programmes

to continuously review and enforce national and local laws, regulations and standards on sustainable

development.

(d) Strengthening legal and institutional capacity

8.26. A major part of the programme should be oriented towards improving the legal-institutional

capacities of countries to cope with national problems of governance and effective law-making and

law-applying in the field of environment and sustainable development. Regional centres of excellence

could be designated and supported to build up specialized databases and training facilities for

linguistic/cultural groups of legal systems.

C. Making effective use of economic instruments and market and other incentives

Basis for action

8.27. Environmental law and regulation are important but cannot alone be expected to deal with the

problems of environment and development. Prices, markets and governmental fiscal and economic

policies also play a complementary role in shaping attitudes and behaviour towards the environment.

8.28. During the past several years, many Governments, primarily in industrialized countries but also in

Central and Eastern Europe and in developing countries, have been making increasing use of

economic approaches, including those that are market-oriented. Examples include the polluter-pays

principle and the more recent natural-resource-user-pays concept.

8.29. Within a supportive international and national economic context and given the necessary legal and

regulatory framework, economic and market-oriented approaches can in many cases enhance capacity

to deal with the issues of environment and development. This would be achieved by providing cost- effective solutions, applying integrated pollution prevention control, promoting technological

innovation and influencing environmental behaviour, as well as providing financial resources to meet

sustainable development objectives.

8.30. What is needed is an appropriate effort to explore and make more effective and widespread use of

economic and market-oriented approaches within a broad framework of development policies, law and

regulation suited to country -specific conditions as part of a general transition to economic and

environmental policies that are supportive and mutually reinforcing.

Objectives

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8.31. Recognizing that countries will develop their own priorities in accordance with their needs and

national plans, policies and programmes, the challenge is to achieve significant progress in the years

ahead in meeting three fundamental objectives:

a. To incorporate environmental costs in the decisions of producers and

consumers, to reverse the tendency to treat the environment as a “free good”

and to pass these costs on to other parts of society, other countries, or to

future generations;

b. To move more fully towards integration of social and environmental costs

into economic activities, so that prices will appropriately reflect the relative

scarcity and total value of resources and contribute towards the prevention

of environmental degradation;

c. To include, wherever appropriate, the use of market principles in the

framing of economic instruments and policies to pursue sustainable

development.

Activities

(a) Improving or reorienting governmental policies

8.32. In the near term, Governments should consider gradually building on experience with economic

instruments and market mechanisms by undertaking to reorient their policies, keeping in mind national

plans, priorities and objectives, in order to:

a. Establish effective combinations of economic, regulatory and voluntary

(self-regulatory) approaches;

b. Remove or reduce those subsidies that do not conform with sustainable

development objectives;

c. Reform or recast existing structures of economic and fiscal incentives to

meet environment and development objectives;

d. Establish a policy framework that encourages the creation of new markets

in pollution control and environmentally sounder resource management;

e. Move towards pricing consistent with sustainable development objectives.

8.33. In particular, Governments should explore, in cooperation with business and industry, as

appropriate, how effective use can be made of economic instruments and market mechanisms in the

following areas:

a. Issues related to energy, transportation, agriculture and forestry, water,

wastes, health, tourism and tertiary services;

b. Global and transboundary issues;

c. The development and introduction of environmentally sound technology

and its adaptation, diffusion and transfer to developing countries in

conformity with chapter 34.

(b) Taking account of the particular circumstances of developing countries and countries with economies in

transition

8.34. A special effort should be made to develop applications of the use of economic instruments and

market mechanisms geared to the particular needs of developing countries and countries with

economies in transition, with the assistance of regional and international economic and environmental

organizations and, as appropriate, non-governmental research institutes, by:

a. Providing technical support to those countries on issues relating to the

application of economic instruments and market mechanisms;

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b. Encouraging regional seminars and, possibly, the development of

regional centres of expertise.

(c) Creating an inventory of effective uses of economic instruments and market mechanisms

8.35. Given the recognition that the use of economic instruments and market mechanisms is relatively

recent, exchange of information about different countries’ experiences with such approaches should be

actively encouraged. In this regard, Governments should encourage the use of existing means of

information exchange to look at effective uses of economic instruments.

(d) Increasing understanding of the role of economic instruments and market mechanisms

8.36. Governments should encourage research and analysis on effective uses of economic instruments

and incentives with the assistance and support of regional and international economic and

environmental organizations, as well as non-governmental research institutes, with a focus on such key

issues as:

a. The role of environmental taxation suited to national conditions;

b. The implications of economic instruments and incentives for

competitiveness and international trade, and potential needs for appropriate

future international cooperation and coordination;

c. The possible social and distributive implications of using various

instruments.

(e) Establishing a process for focusing on pricing

8.37. The theoretical advantages of using pricing policies, where appropriate, need to be better

understood, and accompanied by greater understanding of what it means to take significant steps in

this direction. Processes should therefore be initiated, in cooperation with business, industry, large

enterprises, transnational corporations, as well as other social groups, as appropriate, at both the

national and international levels, to examine:

a. The practical implications of moving towards greater reliance on pricing that

internalize environmental costs appropriate to help achieve sustainable

development objectives;

b. The implications for resource pricing in the case of resource-exporting

countries, including the implications of such pricing policies for developing

countries;

c. The methodologies used in valuing environmental costs.

(f) Enhancing understanding of sustainable development economics

8.38. Increased interest in economic instruments, including market mechanisms, also requires a

concerted effort to improve understanding of sustainable development economics by:

a. Encouraging institutions of higher learning to review their curricula and

strengthen studies in sustainable development economics;

b. Encouraging regional and international economic organizations and

non-governmental research institutes with expertise in this area to

provide training sessions and seminars for government officials;

c. Encouraging business and industry, including large industrial

enterprises and transnational corporations with expertise in

environmental matters, to organize training programmes for the private

sector and other groups.

Means of implementation

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8.39. This programme involves adjustments or reorientation of policies on the part of Governments. It

also involves international and regional economic and environmental organizations and agencies with

expertise in this area, including transnational corporations.

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

8.40. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $5 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

D. Establishing systems for integrated environmental and economic accounting

Basis for action

8.41. A first step towards the integration of sustainability into economic management is the

establishment of better measurement of the crucial role of the environment as a source of natural

capital and as a sink for by-products generated during the production of man-made capital and other

human activities. As sustainable development encompasses social, economic and environmental

dimensions, it is also important that national accounting procedures are not restricted to measuring the

production of goods and services that are conventionally remunerated. A common framework needs to

be developed whereby the contributions made by all sectors and activities of society, that are not

included in the conventional national accounts, are included, to the extent consistent with sound theory

and practicability, in satellite accounts. A programme to develop national systems of integrated

environmental and economic accounting in all countries is proposed.

Objectives

8.42. The main objective is to expand existing systems of national economic accounts in order t o

integrate environment and social dimensions in the accounting framework, including at least satellite

systems of accounts for natural resources in all member States. The resulting systems of integrated

environmental and economic accounting (IEEA) to be established in all member States at the earliest

date should be seen as a complement to, rather than a substitute for, traditional national accounting

practices for the foreseeable future. IEEAs would be designed to play an integral part in the national

development decision-making process. National accounting agencies should work in close

collaboration with national environmental statistics as well as the geographic and natural resource

departments. The definition of economically active could be expanded to include people performing

productive but unpaid tasks in all countries. This would enable their contribution to be adequately

measured and taken into account in decision-making.

Activities

(a) Strengthening international cooperation

8.43. The Statistical Office of the United Nations Secretariat should:

a. Make available to all member States the methodologies contained in the SNA

Handbook on Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting;

b. In collaboration with other relevant United Nations organizations, further develop,

test, refine and then standardize the provisional concepts and methods such as those

proposed by the SNA Handbook, keeping member States informed of the status of

the work throughout this process;

c. Coordinate, in close cooperation with other international organizations, the training

of national accountants, environmental statisticians and national technical staff in

small groups for the establishment, adaptation and development of national IEEAs.

8.44. The Department of Economic and Social Development of the United Nations Secretariat, in close

collaboration with other relevant United Nations organizations, should:

a. Support, in all member States, the utilization of sustainable development indicators

in national economic and social planning and decision-making practices, with a view

to ensuring that IEEAs are usefully integrated in economic development planning at

the national level;

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b. Promote improved environmental and economic and social data collection.

(b) Strengthening national accounting systems

8.45. At the national level, the programme could be adopted mainly by the agencies dealing with

national accounts, in close cooperation with environmental statistics and natural resource departments,

with a view to assisting national economic analysts and decision makers in charge of national

economic planning. National institutions should play a crucial role not only as the depositary of the

system but also in its adaptation, establishment and continuous use. Unpaid productive work such as

domestic work and child care should be included, where appropriate, in satellite national accounts and

economic statistics. Time-use surveys could be a first step in the process of developing these satellite

accounts.

(c) Establishing an assessment process

8.46. At the international level, the Statistical Commission should assemble and review experience and

advise member States on technical and methodological issues related to the further development and

implementation of IEEAs in member States.

8.47. Governments should seek to identify and consider measures to correct price distortions arising

from environmental programmes affecting land, water, energy and other natural resources.

8.48. Governments should encourage corporations:

a. To provide relevant environmental information through transparent reporting to

shareholders, creditors, employees, governmental authorities, consumers and the

public;

b. To develop and implement methods and rules for accounting for sustaining

development.

(d) Strengthening data and information collection

8.49. National Governments could consider implementing the necessary enhancement in data collection

to set in place national IEEAs with a view to contributing pragmatically to sound economic

management. Major efforts should be made to augment the capacity to collect and analyse

environmental data and information and to integrate it with economic data, including gender

disaggregated data. Efforts should also be made to develop physical environmental accounts.

International donor agencies should consider financing the development of intersectoral data banks to

help ensure that national planning for sustainable development is based on precise, reliable and

effective information and is suited to national conditions.

(e) Strengthening technical cooperation

8.50. The Statistical Office of the United Nations Secretariat, in close collaboration with relevant United

Nations organizations, should strengthen existing mechanisms for technical cooperation among

countries. This should also include exchange of experience in the establishment of IEEAs, particularly

in connection with the valuation of non-marketed natural resources and standardization in data

collection. The cooperation of business and industry, including large industrial enterprises and

transnational corporations with experience in valuation of such resources, should also be sought.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

8.51. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $2 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Strengthening institutions

8.52. To ensure the application of IEEAs:

a. National institutions in developing countries could be strengthened to ensure the effective

integration of environment and development at the planning and decision-making levels;

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b. The Statistical Office should provide the necessary technical support to member States, in close

collaboration with the assessment process to be established by the Statistical Commission; the

Statistical Office should provide appropriate support for establishing IEEAs, in collaboration with

relevant United Nations agencies.

(c) Enhancing the use of information technology

8.53. Guidelines and mechanisms could be developed and agreed upon for the adaptation and diffusion

of information technologies to developing countries. State-of-the-art data management technologies

should be adopted for the most efficient and widespread use of IEEAs.

(d) Strengthening national capacity

8.54. Governments, with the support of the international community, should strengthen national

institutional capacity to collect, store, organize, assess and use data in decision-making. Training in all

areas related to the establishment of IEEAs, and at all levels, will be required, especially in developing

countries. This should include technical training of those involved in economic and environmental

analysis, data collection and national accounting, as well as training decision makers to use such

information in a pragmatic and appropriate way.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 9

PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE

INTRODUCTION

9.1. Protection of the atmosphere is a broad and multidimensional endeavour involving various sectors of

economic activity. The options and measures described in the present chapter are recommended for

consideration and, as appropriate, implementation by Governments and other bodies in their efforts to

protect the atmosphere.

9.2. It is recognized that many of the issues discussed in this chapter are also addressed in such

international agreements as the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the

1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as amended, the 1992 United

Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and other international, including regional,

instruments. In the case of activities covered by such agreements, it is understood that the

recommendations contained in this chapter do not oblige any Government to take measures which

exceed the provisions of these legal instruments. However, within the framework of this chapter,

Governments are free to carry out additional measures which are consistent with those legal

instruments.

9.3. It is also recognized that activities that may be undertaken in pursuit of the objectives of this chapter

should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner with a view to

avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking into full account the legitimate priority needs of

developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of

poverty.

9.4. In this context particular reference is also made to programme area A of chapter 2 of Agenda 21

(Promoting sustainable development through trade).

9.5. The present chapter includes the following four programme areas:

a. Addressing the uncertainties: improving the scientific basis for decision-making;

b. Promoting sustainable development:

i. Energy development, efficiency and consumption;

ii. Transportation;

iii. Industrial development;

iv. Terrestrial and marine resource development and land use;

c. Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion;

d. Transboundary atmospheric pollution.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Addressing the uncertainties: improving the scientific basis for decision-making

Basis for action

9.6. Concern about climate change and climate variability, air pollution and ozone depletion has created

new demands for scientific, economic and social information to reduce the remaining uncertainties in

these fields. Better understanding and prediction of the various properties of the atmosphere and of the

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affected ecosystems, as well as health impacts and their interactions with socio-economic factors, are

needed.

Objectives

9.7. The basic objective of this programme area is to improve the understanding of processes that influence

and are influenced by the Earth’s atmosphere on a global, regional and local scale, including, inter alia,

physical, chemical, geological, biological, oceanic, hydrological, economic and social processes; to

build capacity and enhance international cooperation; and to improve understanding of the economic

and social consequences of atmospheric changes and of mitigation and response measures addressing

such changes.

Activities

9.8. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and,

as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should:

a. Promote research related to the natural processes affecting and being affected by the

atmosphere, as well as the critical linkages between sustainable development and atmospheric

changes, including impacts on human health, ecosystems, economic sectors and society;

b. Ensure a more balanced geographical coverage of the Global Climate Observing System and

its components, including the Global Atmosphere Watch, by facilitating, inter alia, the

establishment and operation of additional systematic observation stations, and by contributing

to the development, utilization and accessibility of these databases;

c. Promote cooperation in:

i. The development of early detection systems concerning changes and fluctuations in

the atmosphere;

ii. The establishment and improvement of capabilities to predict such changes and

fluctuations and to assess the resulting environmental and socio-economic impacts;

d. Cooperate in research to develop methodologies and identify threshold levels of atmospheric

pollutants, as well as atmospheric levels of greenhouse gas concentrations, that would cause

dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system and the environment as a

whole, and the associated rates of change that would not allow ecosystems to adapt naturally;

e. Promote, and cooperate in the building of scientific capacities, the exchange of scientific data

and information, and the facilitation of the participation and training of experts and technical

staff, particularly of developing countries, in the fields of research, data assembly, collection

and assessment, and systematic observation related to the atmosphere.

B. Promoting sustainable development

1. Energy development, efficiency and consumption

Basis for action

9.9. Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the

world’s energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if

technology were to remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. The need

to control atmospheric emissions of greenhouse and other gases and substances will increasingly need

to be based on efficiency in energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption, and on

growing reliance on environmentally sound energy systems, particularly new and renewable sources of

energy. 1/ All energy sources will need to be used in ways that respect the atmosphere, human health

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and the environment as a whole.

9.10. The existing constraints to increasing the environmentally sound energy supplies required for

pursuing the path towards sustainable development, particularly in developing countries, need to be

removed.

Objectives

9.11. The basic and ultimate objective of this programme area is to reduce adverse effects on the

atmosphere from the energy sector by promoting policies or programmes, as appropriate, to increase

the contribution of environmentally sound and cost-effective energy systems, particularly new and

renewable ones, through less polluting and more efficient energy production, transmission, distribution

and use. This objective should reflect the need for equity, adequate energy supplies and increasing

energy consumption in developing countries, and should take into consideration the situations of

countries that are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export,

and/or consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products and/or the use of fossil

fuels for which countries have serious difficulties in switching to alternatives, and the situations of

countries highly vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change.

Activities

9.12. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies

and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector,

should:

a. Cooperate in identifying and developing economically viable, environmentally sound energy

sources to promote the availability of increased energy supplies to support sustainable

development efforts, in particular in developing countries;

b. Promote the development at the national level of appropriate methodologies for making

integrated energy, environment and economic policy decisions for sustainable development,

inter alia, through environmental impact assessments;

c. Promote the research, development, transfer and use of improved energy-efficient

technologies and practices, including endogenous technologies in all relevant sectors, giving

special attention to the rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, with particular

attention to developing countries;

d. Promote the research, development, transfer and use of technologies and practices for

environmentally sound energy systems, including new and renewable energy systems, with

particular attention to developing countries;

e. Promote the development of institutional, scientific, planning and management capacities,

particularly in developing countries, to develop, produce and use increasingly efficient and

less polluting forms of energy;

f. Review current energy supply mixes to determine how the contribution of environmentally

sound energy systems as a whole, particularly new and renewable energy systems, could be

increased in an economically efficient manner, taking into account respective countries’

unique social, physical, economic and political characteristics, and examining and

implementing, where appropriate, measures to overcome any barriers to their development

and use;

g. Coordinate energy plans regionally and subregionally, where applicable, and study the

feasibility of efficient distribution of environmentally sound energy from new and renewable

energy sources;

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h. In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate

and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative,

social and economic measures, in order to improve energy efficiency;

i. Build capacity for energy planning and programme management in energy efficiency, as well

as for the development, introduction, and promotion of new and renewable sources of energy;

j. Promote appropriate energy efficiency and emission standards or recommendations at the

national level, 2/ aimed at the development and use of technologies that minimize adverse

impacts on the environment;

k. Encourage education and awareness-raising programmes at the local, national, subregional

and regional levels concerning energy efficiency and environmentally sound energy systems;

l. Establish or enhance, as appropriate, in cooperation with the private sector, labelling

programmes for products to provide decision makers and consumers with information on

opportunities for energy efficiency.

2. Transportation

Basis for action

9.13. The transport sector has an essential and positive role to play in economic and social development,

and transportation needs will undoubtedly increase. However, since the transport sector is also a

source of atmospheric emissions, there is need for a review of existing transport systems and for more

effective design and management of traffic and transport systems.

Objectives

9.14. The basic objective of this programme area is to develop and promote cost-effective policies or

programmes, as appropriate, to limit, reduce or control, as appropriate, harmful emissions into the

atmosphere and other adverse environmental effects of the transport sector, taking into account

development priorities as well as the specific local and national circumstances and safety aspects.

Activities

9.15. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies

and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector,

should:

a. Develop and promote, as appropriate, cost-effective, more efficient, less polluting and safer

transport systems, particularly integrated rural and urban mass transit, as well as

environmentally sound road networks, taking into account the needs for sustainable social,

economic and development priorities, particularly in developing countries;

b. Facilitate at the international, regional, subregional and national levels access to and the

transfer of safe, efficient, including resource-efficient, and less polluting transport

technologies, particularly to the developing countries, including the implementation of

appropriate training programmes;

c. Strengthen, as appropriate, their efforts at collecting, analysing and exchanging relevant

information on the relation between environment and transport, with particular emphasis on

the systematic observation of emissions and the development of a transport database;

d. In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate

and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative,

social and economic measures, in order to encourage use of transportation modes that

minimize adverse impacts on the atmosphere;

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e. Develop or enhance, as appropriate, mechanisms to integrate transport planning strategies and

urban and regional settlement planning strategies, with a view to reducing the environmental

impacts of transport;

f. Study, within the framework of the United Nations and its regional commissions, the

feasibility of convening regional conferences on transport and the environment.

3. Industrial development

Basis for action

9.16. Industry is essential for the production of goods and services and is a major source of employment

and income, and industrial development as such is essential for economic growth. At the same time,

industry is a major resource and materials user and consequently industrial activities result in

emissions into the atmosphere and the environment as a whole. Protection of the atmosphere can be

enhanced, inter alia, by increasing resource and materials efficiency in industry, installing or

improving pollution abatement technologies and replacing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other

ozone-depleting substances with appropriate substitutes, as well as by reducing wastes and by- products.

Objectives

9.17. The basic objective of this programme area is to encourage industrial development in ways that

minimize adverse impacts on the atmosphere by, inter alia, increasing efficiency in the production and

consumption by industry of all resources and materials, by improving pollution-abatement

technologies and by developing new environmentally sound technologies.

Activities

9.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies

and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector,

should:

a. In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate

and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative,

social and economic measures, in order to minimize industrial pollution and adverse impacts

on the atmosphere;

b. Encourage industry to increase and strengthen its capacity to develop technologies, products

and processes that are safe, less polluting and make more efficient use of all resources and

materials, including energy;

c. Cooperate in the development and transfer of such industrial technologies and in the

development of capacities to manage and use such technologies, particularly with respect to

developing countries;

d. Develop, improve and apply environmental impact assessments to foster sustainable industrial

development;

e. Promote efficient use of materials and resources, taking into account the life cycles of

products, in order to realize the economic and environmental benefits of using resources more

efficiently and producing fewer wastes;

f. Support the promotion of less polluting and more efficient technologies and processes in

industries, taking into account area-specific accessible potentials for energy, particularly safe

and renewable sources of energy, with a view to limiting industrial pollution, and adverse

impacts on the atmosphere.

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4. Terrestrial and marine resource development and land use

Basis for action

9.19. Land-use and resource policies will both affect and be affected by changes in the atmosphere.

Certain practices related to terrestrial and marine resources and land use can decrease greenhouse gas

sinks and increase atmospheric emissions. The loss of biological diversity may reduce the resilience of

ecosystems to climatic variations and air pollution damage. Atmospheric changes can have important

impacts on forests, biodiversity, and freshwater and marine ecosystems, as well as on economic

activities, such as agriculture. Policy objectives in different sectors may often diverge and will need to

be handled in an integrated manner.

Objectives

9.20. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To promote terrestrial and marine resource utilization and appropriate land-use practices that

contribute to:

i. The reduction of atmospheric pollution and/or the limitation of anthropogenic

emissions of greenhouse gases;

ii. The conservation, sustainable management and enhancement, where appropriate, of

all sinks for greenhouse gases;

iii. The conservation and sustainable use of natural and environmental resources;

b. To ensure that actual and potential atmospheric changes and their socio-economic and

ecological impacts are fully taken into account in planning and implementing policies and

programmes concerning terrestrial and marine resources utilization and land-use practices.

Activities

9.21. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies

and, as appropriate, int ergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector,

should:

a. In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate

and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative,

social and economic measures, in order to encourage environmentally sound land-use

practices;

b. Implement policies and programmes that will discourage inappropriate and polluting land-use

practices and promote sustainable utilization of terrestrial and marine resources;

c. Consider promoting the development and use of terrestrial and marine resources and land-use

practices that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and fluctuations;

d. Promote sustainable management and cooperation in the conservation and enhancement, as

appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases, including biomass, forests and

oceans, as well as other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems.

C. Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion

Basis for action

9.22. Analysis of recent scientific data has confirmed the growing concern about the continuing

depletion of the Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer by reactive chlorine and bromine from man-made

CFCs, halons and related substances. While the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the

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Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (as

amended in London in 1990) were important steps in international action, the total chlorine loading of

the atmosphere of ozone-depleting substances has continued to rise. This can be changed through

compliance with the control measures identified within the Protocol.

Objectives

9.23. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To realize the objectives defined in the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its

1990 amendments, including the consideration in those instruments of the special needs and

conditions of the developing countries and the availability to them of alternatives to

substances that deplete the ozone layer. Technologies and natural products that reduce

demand for these substances should be encouraged;

b. To develop strategies aimed at mitigating the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation reaching

the Earth’s surface as a consequence of depletion and modification of the stratospheric ozone

layer.

Activities

9.24. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies

and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector,

should:

a. Ratify, accept or approve the Montreal Protocol and its 1990 amendments; pay their

contributions towards the Vienna/Montreal trust funds and the interim multilateral ozone fund

promptly; and contribute, as appropriate, towards ongoing efforts under the Montreal Protocol

and its implementing mechanisms, including making available substitutes for CFCs and other

ozone-depleting substances and facilitating the transfer of the corresponding technologies to

developing countries in order to enable them to comply with the obligations of the Protocol;

b. Support further expansion of the Global Ozone Observing System by facilitating – through

bilateral and multilateral funding – the establishment and operation of additional systematic

observation stations, especially in the tropical belt in the southern hemisphere;

c. Participate actively in the continuous assessment of scientific information and the health and

environmental effects, as well as of the technological/economic implications of stratospheric

ozone depletion; and consider further actions that prove warranted and feasible on the basis of

these assessments;

d. Based on the results of research on the effects of the additional ultraviolet radiation reaching

the Earth’s surface, consider taking appropriate remedial measures in the fields of human

health, agriculture and marine environment;

e. Replace CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances, consistent with the Montreal Protocol,

recognizing that a replacement’s suitability should be evaluated holistically and not simply

based on its contribution to solving one atmospheric or environmental problem.

D. Transboundary atmospheric pollution

Basis for action

9.25. Transboundary air pollution has adverse health impacts on humans and other detrimental

environmental impacts, such as tree and forest loss and the acidification of water bodies. The

geographical distribution of atmospheric pollution monitoring networks is uneven, with the developing

countries severely underrepresented. The lack of reliable emissions data outside Europe and North

America is a major constraint to measuring transboundary air pollution. There is also insufficient

information on the environmental and health effects of air pollution in other regions.

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9.26. The 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, and its protocols, have

established a regional regime in Europe and North America, based on a review process and

cooperative programmes for systematic observation of air pollution, assessment and information

exchange. These programmes need to be continued and enhanced, and their experience needs to be

shared with other regions of the world.

Objectives

9.27. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To develop and apply pollution control and measurement technologies for stationary and

mobile sources of air pollution and to develop alternative environmentally sound

technologies;

b. To observe and assess systematically the sources and extent of transboundary air pollution

resulting from natural processes and anthropogenic activities;

c. To strengthen the capabilities, particularly of developing countries, to measure, model and

assess the fate and impacts of transboundary air pollution, through, inter alia, exchange of

information and training of experts;

d. To develop capabilities to assess and mitigate transboundary air pollution resulting from

industrial and nuclear accidents, natural disasters and the deliberate and/or accidental

destruction of natural resources;

e. To encourage the establishment of new and the implementation of existing regional

agreements for limiting transboundary air pollution;

f. To develop strategies aiming at the reduction of emissions causing transboundary air pollution

and their effects.

Activities

9.28. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies

and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the private sector and

financial institutions, should:

a. Establish and/or strengthen regional agreements for transboundary air pollution control and

cooperate, particularly with developing countries, in the areas of systematic observation and

assessment, modelling and the development and exchange of emission control technologies

for mobile and stationary sources of air pollution. In this context, greater emphasis should be

put on addressing the extent, causes, health and socio-economic impacts of ultraviolet

radiation, acidification of the environment and photo-oxidant damage to forests and other

vegetation;

b. Establish or strengthen early warning systems and response mechanisms for transboundary air

pollution resulting from industrial accidents and natural disasters and the deliberate and/or

accidental destruction of natural resources;

c. Facilitate training opportunities and exchange of data, information and national and/or

regional experiences;

d. Cooperate on regional, multilateral and bilateral bases to assess transboundary air pollution,

and elaborate and implement programmes identifying specific actions to reduce atmospheric

emissions and to address their environmental, economic, social and other effects.

Means of implementation

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International and regional cooperation

9.29. Existing legal instruments have created institutional structures which relate to the purposes of

these instruments, and relevant work should primarily continue in those contexts. Governments should

continue to cooperate and enhance their cooperation at the regional and global levels, including

cooperation within the United Nations system. In this context reference is made to the

recommendations in chapter 38 of Agenda 21 (International institutional arrangements).

Capacity-building

9.30. Countries, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations bodies, international donors and non- governmental organizations, should mobilize technical and financial resources and facilitate technical

cooperation with developing countries to reinforce their technical, managerial, planning and

administrative capacities to promote sustainable development and the protection of the atmosphere, in

all relevant sectors.

Human resource development

9.31. Education and awareness-raising programmes concerning the promotion of sustainable

development and the protection of the atmosphere need to be introduced and strengthened at the local,

national and international levels in all relevant sectors.

Financial and cost evaluation

9.32. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities under programme area A to be about $640 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that

are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

9.33. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of the four-part programme under programme area B to be about $20

billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and

order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and

financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific

strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

9.34. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities under programme area C to be in the range of $160-590 million on grant or

concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been

reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,

will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for

implementation.

9.35. The Conference secretariat has included costing for technical assistance and pilot programmes

under paragraphs 9.32 and 9.33.

Notes

1/ New and renewable energy sources are solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, hydro, biomass,

geothermal, ocean, animal and human power, as referred to in the reports of the Committee on the

Development and Utilization of New and Renewable Sources of Energy, prepared specifically for the

Conference (see A/CONF.151/PC/119 and A/AC.218/1992/5).

2/ This includes standards or recommendations promoted by regional economic integration organizations.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 10

INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF

LAND RESOURCES

10.1. Land is normally defined as a physical entity in terms of its topography and spatial nature; a broader

integrative view also includes natural resources: the soils, minerals, water and biota that the land

comprises. These components are organized in ecosystems which provide a variety of services

essential to the maintenance of the integrity of life-support systems and the productive capacity of the

environment. Land resources are used in ways that take advantage of all these characteristics. Land is

a finite resource, while the natural resources it supports can vary over time and according to

management conditions and uses. Expanding human requirements and economic activities are

placing ever increasing pressures on land resources, creating competition and conflicts and resulting

in suboptimal use of both land and land resources. If, in the future, human requirements are to be met

in a sustainable manner, it is now essential to resolve these conflicts and move towards more

effective and efficient use of land and its natural resources. Integrated physical and land-use planning

and management is an eminently practical way to achieve this. By examining all uses of land in an

integrated manner, it makes it possible to minimize conflicts, to make the most efficient trade-offs

and to link social and economic development with environmental protection and enhancement, thus

helping to achieve the objectives of sustainable development. The essence of the integrated approach

finds expression in the coordination of the sectoral planning and management activities concerned

with the various aspects of land use and land resources.

10.2. The present chapter consists of one programme area, the integrated approach to the planning and

management of land resources, which deals with the reorganization and, where necessary, some

strengthening of the decision-making structure, including existing policies, planning and

management procedures and methods that can assist in putting in place an integrated approach to

land resources. It does not deal with the operational aspects of planning and management, which are

more appropriately dealt with under the relevant sectoral programmes. Since the programme deals

with an important cross-sectoral aspect of decision-making for sustainable development, it is closely

related to a number of other programmes that deal with that issue directly.

PROGRAMME AREA

Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources

Basis for action

10.3. Land resources are used for a variety of purposes which interact and may compete with one another;

therefore, it is desirable to plan and manage all uses in an integrated manner. Integration should take

place at two levels, considering, on the one hand, all environmental, social and economic factors

(including, for example, impacts of the various economic and social sectors on the environment and

natural resources) and, on the other, all environmental and resource components together (i.e., air,

water, biota, land, geological and natural resources). Integrated consideration facilitates appropriate

choices and trade-offs, thus maximizing sustainable productivity and use. Opportunities to allocate

land to different uses arise in the course of major settlement or development projects or in a

sequential fashion as lands become available on the market. This in turn provides opportunities to

support traditional patterns of sustainable land management or to assign protected status for

conservation of biological diversity or critical ecological services.

10.4. A number of techniques, frameworks and processes can be combined to facilitate an integrated

approach. They are the indispensable support for the planning and management process, at the

national and local level, ecosystem or area levels and for the development of specific plans of action.

Many of its elements are already in place but need to be more widely applied, further developed and

strengthened. This programme area is concerned primarily with providing a framework that will

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coordinate decision-making; the content and operational functions are therefore not included here but

are dealt with in the relevant sectoral programmes of Agenda 21.

Objectives

10.5. The broad objective is to facilitate allocation of land to the uses that provide the greatest sustainable

benefits and to promote the transition to a sustainable and integrated management of land resources.

In doing so, environmental, social and economic issues should be taken into consideration. Protected

areas, private property rights, the rights of indigenous people and their communities and other local

communities and the economic role of women in agriculture and rural development, among other

issues, should be taken into account. In more specific terms, the objectives are as follows:

a. To review and develop policies to support the best possible use of land and the

sustainable management of land resources, by not later than 1996;

b. To improve and strengthen planning, management and evaluation systems for land and

land resources, by not later than 2000;

c. To strengthen institutions and coordinating mechanisms for land and land resources, by

not later than 1998;

d. To create mechanisms to facilitate the active involvement and participation of all

concerned, particularly communities and people at the local level, in decision-making on

land use and management, by not later than 1996.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

Developing supportive policies and policy instruments

10.6. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of regional and international organizations,

should ensure that policies and policy instruments support the best possible land use and sustainable

management of land resources. Particular attention should be given to the role of agricultural land.

To do this, they should:

a. Develop integrated goal-setting and policy formulation at the national, regional and

local levels that takes into account environmental, social, demographic and economic

issues;

b. Develop policies that encourage sustainable land use and management of land

resources and take the land resource base, demographic issues and the interests of the

local population into account;

c. Review the regulatory framework, including laws, regulations and enforcement

procedures, in order to identify improvements needed to support sustainable land use

and management of land resources and restricts the transfer of productive arable land

to other uses;

d. Apply economic instruments and develop institutional mechanisms and incentives to

encourage the best possible land use and sustainable management of land resources;

e. Encourage the principle of delegating policy-making to the lowest level of public

authority consistent with effective action and a locally driven approach.

Strengthening planning and management systems

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10.7. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of regional and international organizations,

should review and, if appropiate, revise planning and management systems to facilitate an integrated

approach. To do this, they should:

a. Adopt planning and management systems that facilitate the integration of environmental

components such as air, water, land and other natural resources, using landscape ecological

planning (LANDEP) or other approaches that focus on, for example, an ecosystem or a

watershed;

b. Adopt strategic frameworks that allow the integration of both developmental and

environmental goals; examples of these frameworks include sustainable livelihood systems,

rural development, the World Conservation Strategy/Caring for the Earth, primary

environmental care (PEC) and others;

c. Establish a general framework for land-use and physical planning within which specialized

and more detailed sectoral plans (e.g., for protected areas, agriculture, forests, human

settlements, rural development) can be developed; establish intersectoral consultative bodies

to streamline project planning and implementation;

d. Strengthen management systems for land and natural resources by including appropriate

traditional and indigenous methods; examples of these practices include pastoralism, Hema

reserves (traditional Islamic land reserves) and terraced agriculture;

e. Examine and, if necessary, establish innovative and flexible approaches to programme

funding;

f. Compile detailed land capability inventories to guide sustainable land resources allocation,

management and use at the national and local levels.

Promoting application of appropriate tools for planning and management

10.8. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of national and international organizations,

should promote the improvement, further development and widespread application of planning and

management tools that facilitate an integrated and sustainable approach to land and resources. To do

this, they should:

a. Adopt improved systems for the interpretation and integrated analysis of data on land use and

land resources;

b. Systematically apply techniques and procedures for assessing the environmental, social and

economic impacts, risks, costs and benefits of specific actions;

c. Analyse and test methods to include land and ecosystem functions and land resources values

in national accounts.

Raising awareness

10.9. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national institutions and interest groups

and with the support of regional and international organizations, should launch awareness-raising

campaigns to alert and educate people on the importance of integrated land and land resources

management and the role that individuals and social groups can play in it. This should be

accompanied by provision of the means to adopt improved practices for land use and sustainable

management.

Promoting public participation

10.10. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national organizations and with the

support of regional and international organizations, should establish innovative procedures,

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programmes, projects and services that facilitate and encourage the active participation of those

affected in the decision-making and implementation process, especially of groups that have, hitherto,

often been excluded, such as women, youth, indigenous people and their communities and other local

communities.

(b) Data and information

Strengthening information systems

10.11. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with national institutions and the private

sector and with the support of regional and international organizations, should strengthen the

information systems necessary for making decisions and evaluating future changes on land use and

management. The needs of both men and women should be taken into account. To do this, they

should:

a. Strengthen information, systematic observation and assessment systems for

environmental, economic and social data related to land resources at the global,

regional, national and local levels and for land capability and land-use and

management patterns;

b. Strengthen coordination between existing sectoral data systems on land and land

resources and strengthen national capacity to gather and assess data;

c. Provide the appropriate technical information necessary for informed decision- making on land use and management in an accessible form to all sectors of the

population, especially to local communities and women;

d. Support low-cost, community-managed systems for the collection of comparable

information on the status and processes of change of land resources, including soils,

forest cover, wildlife, climate and other elements.

(c) International and regional coordination and cooperation Establishing regional machinery

10.12. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of regional and international organizations,

should strengthen regional cooperation and exchange of information on land resources. To do this,

they should:

a. Study and design regional policies to support programmes for land-use and physical planning;

b. Promote the development of land-use and physical plans in the countries of the region;

c. Design information systems and promote training;

d. Exchange, through networks and other appropriate means, information on experiences with

the process and results of integrated and participatory planning and management of land

resources at the national and local levels.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

10.13. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $50 million from the international

community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates

only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any

that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes

Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

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Enhancing scientific understanding of the land resources system

10.14. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration wit h the national and international scientific

community and with the support of appropriate national and international organizations, should

promote and support research, tailored to local environments, on the land resources system and the

implications for sustainable development and management practices. Priority should be given, as

appropriate, to:

a. Assessment of land potential capability and ecosystem functions;

b. Ecosystemic interactions and interactions between land resources and social,

economic and environmental systems;

c. Developing indicators of sustainability for land resources, taking into account

environmental, economic, social, demographic, cultural and political factors.

Testing research findings through pilot projects

10.15. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with the national and international scientific

community and with the support of the relevant international organizations, should research and test,

through pilot projects, the applicability of improved approaches to the integrated planning and

management of land resources, including technical, social and institutional factors.

(c) Human resource development

Enhancing education and training

10.16. Governments at the appropriate level, in collaboration with the appropriate local authorities, non- governmental organizations and international institutions, should promote the development of the

human resources that are required to plan and manage land and land resources sustainably. This

should be done by providing incentives for local initiatives and by enhancing local management

capacity, particularly of women, through:

a. Emphasizing interdisciplinary and integrative approaches in the curricula of schools and

technical, vocational and university training;

b. Training all relevant sectors concerned to deal with land resources in an integrated and

sustainable manner;

c. Training communities, relevant extension services, community-based groups and non- governmental organizations on land management techniques and approaches applied

successfully elsewhere.

(d) Capacity-building Strengthening technological capacity

10.17. Governments at the appropriate level, in cooperation with other Governments and with the support

of relevant international organizations, should promote focused and concerted efforts for education

and training and the transfer of techniques and technologies that support the various aspects of the

sustainable planning and management process at the national, state/provincial and local levels.

Strengthening institutions

10.18. Governments at t he appropriate level, with the support of appropriate international organizations,

should:

a. Review and, where appropriate, revise the mandates of institutions that deal with land and

natural resources to include explicitly the interdisciplinary integration of environmental,

social and economic issues;

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b. Strengthen coordinating mechanisms between institutions that deal with land-use and

resources management to facilitate integration of sectoral concerns and strategies;

c. Strengthen local decision-making capacity and improve coordination with higher levels.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 11

COMBATING DEFORESTATION

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Sustaining the multiple roles and functions of all types of forests, forest lands and woodlands

Basis for action

11.1. There are major weaknesses in the policies, methods and mechanisms adopted to support and develop

the multiple ecological, economic, social and cultural roles of trees, forests and forest lands. Many

developed countries are confronted with the effects of air pollution and fire damage on their forests.

More effective measures and approaches are often required at the national level to improve and

harmonize policy formulation, planning and programming; legislative measures and instruments;

development patterns; participation of the general public, especially women and indigenous people;

involvement of youth; roles of the private sector, local organizations, non-governmental

organizations and cooperatives; development of technical and multidisciplinary skills and quality of

human resources; forestry extension and public education; research capability and support;

administrative structures and mechanisms, including intersectoral coordination, decentralization and

responsibility and incentive systems; and dissemination of information and public relations. This is

especially important to ensure a rational and holistic approach to the sustainable and environmentally

sound development of forests. The need for securing the multiple roles of forests and forest lands

through adequate and appropriate institutional strengthening has been repeatedly emphasized in many

of the reports, decisions and recommendations of FAO, ITTO, UNEP, the World Bank, IUCN and

other organizations.

Objectives

11.2. The objectives of this programme area are as follows:

a. To strengthen forest-related national institutions, to enhance the scope and effectiveness

of activities related to the management, conservation and sustainable development of

forests, and to effectively ensure the sustainable utilization and production of forests’

goods and services in both the developed and the developing countries; by the year 2000,

to strengthen the capacities and capabilities of national institutions to enable them to

acquire the necessary knowledge for the protection and conservat ion of forests, as well as

to expand their scope and, correspondingly, enhance the effectiveness of programmes and

activities related to the management and development of forests;

b. To strengthen and improve human, technical and professional skills, as well as expertise

and capabilities to effectively formulate and implement policies, plans, programmes,

research and projects on management, conservation and sustainable development of all

types of forests and forest-based resources, and forest lands inclusive, as well as other

areas from which forest benefits can be derived.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

11.3 Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of regional, subregional and international

organizations, should, where necessary, enhance institutional capability to promote the multiple roles

and functions of all types of forests and vegetation inclusive of other related lands and forest-based

resources in supporting sustainable development and environmental conservation in all sectors. This

should be done, wherever possible and necessary, by strengthening and/or modifying the existing

structures and arrangements, and by improving cooperation and coordination of their respective roles.

Some of the major activities in this regard are as follows:

a. Rationalizing and strengthening administrative structures and mechanisms, including

provision of adequate levels of staff and allocation of responsibilities, decentralization of

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decision-making, provision of infrastructural facilities and equipment, intersectoral

coordination and an effective system of communication;

b. Promoting participation of the private sector, labour unions, rural cooperatives, local

communities, indigenous people, youth, women, user groups and non-governmental

organizations in forest-related activities, and access to information and training programmes

within the national context;

c. Reviewing and, if necessary, revising measures and programmes relevant to all types of

forests and vegetation, inclusive of other related lands and forest-based resources, and relating

them to other land uses and development policies and legislation; promoting adequate

legislation and other measures as a basis against uncontrolled conversion to other types of

land uses;

d. Developing and implementing plans and programmes, including definition of national and, if

necessary, regional and subregional goals, programmes and criteria for their implementation

and subsequent improvement;

e. Establishing, developing and sustaining an effective system of forest extension and public

education to ensure better awareness, appreciation and management of forests with regard to

the multiple roles and values of trees, forests and forest lands;

f. Establishing and/or strengthening institutions for forest education and training, as well as

forestry industries, for developing an adequate cadre of trained and skilled staff at the

professional, technical and vocational levels, with emphasis on youth and women;

g. Establishing and strengthening capabilities for research related to the different aspects of

forests and forest products, for example, on the sustainable management of forests, research

on biodiversity, on the effects of air-borne pollutants, on traditional uses of forest resources

by local populations and indigenous people, and on improving market returns and other non- market values from the management of forests.

(b) Data and information

11.4. Governments at the appropriate level, with the assistance and cooperation of international,

regional, subregional and bilateral agencies, where relevant, should develop adequate databases and

baseline information necessary for planning and programme evaluation. Some of the more specific

activities include the following:

a. Collecting, compiling and regularly updating and distributing information on land

classification and land use, including data on forest cover, areas suitable for afforestation,

endangered species, ecological values, traditional/indigenous land use values, biomass and

productivity, correlating demographic, socio-economic and forest resources information at the

micro- and macro-levels, and undertaking periodic analyses of forest programmes;

b. Establishing linkages with other data systems and sources relevant to supporting forest

management, conservation and development, while further developing or reinforcing existing

systems such as geographic information systems, as appropriate;

c. Creating mechanisms to ensure public access to this information.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

11.5. Governments at the appropriate level and institutions should cooperate in the provision of

expertise and other support and the promotion of international research efforts, in particular with a

view to enhancing transfer of technology and specialized training and ensuring access to experiences

and research results. There is need for strengthening coordination and improving the performance of

existing forest-related international organizations in providing technical cooperation and support to

interested countries for the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests.

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Means of implementation

(a) Financial and cost evaluation

11.6. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $2.5 billion, including about $860 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

11.7. The planning, research and training activities specified will form the scientific and technological

means for implementing the programme, as well as its output. The systems, methodology and know- how generated by the programme will help improve efficiency. Some of the specific steps involved

should include:

a. Analysing achievements, constraints and social issues for supporting programme

formulation and implementation;

b. Analysing research problems and research needs, research planning and implementation

of specific research projects;

c. Assessing needs for human resources, skill development and training;

d. Developing, testing and applying appropriate methodologies/approaches in implementing

forest programmes and plans.

(c) Human resource development

11.8. The specific components of forest education and training will effectively contribute to human

resource development. These include:

a. Launching of graduate and post-graduate degree, specialization and research

programmes;

b. Strengthening of pre-service, in-service and extension service training programmes at the

technical and vocational levels, including training of trainers/teachers, and developing

curriculum and teaching materials/methods;

c. Special training for staff of national forest-related organizations in aspects such as project

formulation, evaluation and periodical evaluations.

(d) Capacity-building

11.9. This programme area is specifically concerned with capacity-building in the forest sector and all

programme activities specified contribute to that end. In building new and strengthened capacities, full

advantage should be taken of the existing systems and experience.

B. Enhancing the protection, sustainable management and conservation of all forests, and the

greening of degraded areas, through forest rehabilitation, afforestation, reforestation and other

rehabilitative means

Basis for action

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11.10. Forests world wide have been and are being threatened by uncontrolled degradation and

conversion to other types of land uses, influenced by increasing human needs; agricultural expansion;

and environmentally harmful mismanagement, including, for example, lack of adequate forest-fire

control and anti-poaching measures, unsustainable commercial logging, overgrazing and unregulated

browsing, harmful effects of airborne pollutants, economic incentives and other measures taken by

other sectors of the economy. The impacts of loss and degradation of forests are in the form of soil

erosion; loss of biological diversity, damage to wildlife habitats and degradation of watershed areas,

deterioration of the quality of life and reduction of the options for development.

11.11. The present situation calls for urgent and consistent action for conserving and sustaining forest

resources. The greening of suitable areas, in all its component activities, is an effective way of

increasing public awareness and participation in protecting and managing forest resources. It should

include the consideration of land use and tenure patterns and local needs and should spell out and

clarify the specific objectives of the different types of greening activities.

Objectives

11.12. The objectives of this programme area are as follows:

a. To maintain existing forests through conservation and management, and sustain and expand

areas under forest and tree cover, in appropriate areas of both developed and developing

countries, through the conservation of natural forests, protection, forest rehabilitation,

regeneration, afforestation, reforestation and tree planting, with a view to maintaining or

restoring the ecological balance and expanding the contribution of forests to human needs and

welfare;

b. To prepare and implement, as appropriate, national forestry action programmes and/or plans

for the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests. These programmes

and/or plans should be integrated with other land uses. In this context, country-driven national

forestry action programmes and/or plans under the Tropical Forestry Action Programme are

currently being implemented in more than 80 countries, with the support of the international

community;

c. To ensure sustainable management and, where appropriate, conservation of existing and

future forest resources;

d. To maintain and increase the ecological, biological, climatic, socio-cultural and economic

contributions of forest resources;

e. To facilitate and support the effective implementation of the non-legally binding authoritative

statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation and

sustainable development of all types of forests, adopted by the United Nations Conference on

Environment and Development, and on the basis of the implementation of these principles to

consider the need for and the feasibility of all kinds of appropriate internationally agreed

arrangements to promote international cooperation on forest management, conservation and

sustainable development of all types of forests, including afforestation, reforestation and

rehabilitation.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

11.13. Governments should recognize the importance of categorizing forests, within the framework of

long-term forest conservation and management policies, into different forest types and setting up

sustainable units in every region/watershed with a view to securing the conservation of forests.

Governments, with the participation of the private sector, non-governmental organizations, local

community groups, indigenous people, women, local government units and the public at large, should

act to maintain and expand the existing vegetative cover wherever ecologically, socially and

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economically feasible, through technical cooperation and other forms of support. Major activities to be

considered include:

a. Ensuring the sustainable management of all forest ecosystems and woodlands, through

improved proper planning, management and timely implementation of silvicultural

operations, including inventory and relevant research, as well as rehabilitation of degraded

natural forests to restore productivity and environmental contributions, giving particular

attention to human needs for economic and ecological services, wood-based energy,

agroforestry, non-timber forest products and services, watershed and soil protection, wildlife

management, and forest genetic resources;

b. Establishing, expanding and managing, as appropriate to each national context, protected area

systems, which includes systems of conservation units for their environmental, social and

spiritual functions and values, including conservation of forests in representative ecological

systems and landscapes, primary old-growth forests, conservation and management of

wildlife, nomination of World Heritage Sites under the World Heritage Convention, as

appropriate, conservation of genetic resources, involving in situ and ex situ measures and

undertaking supportive measures to ensure sustainable utilization of biological resources and

conservation of biological diversity and the traditional forest habitats of indigenous people,

forest dwellers and local communities;

c. Undertaking and promoting buffer and transition zone management;

d. Carrying out revegetation in appropriate mountain areas, highlands, bare lands, degraded farm

lands, arid and semi-arid lands and coastal areas for combating desertification and preventing

erosion problems and for other protective functions and national programmes for

rehabilitation of degraded lands, including community forestry, social forestry, agroforestry

and silvipasture, while also taking into account the role of forests as national carbon reservoirs

and sinks;

e. Developing industrial and non-industrial planted forests in order to support and promote

national ecologically sound afforestation and reforestation/regeneration programmes in

suitable sites, including upgrading of existing planted forests of both industrial and non- industrial and commercial purpose to increase their contribution to human needs and to offset

pressure on primary/old growth forests. Measures should be taken to promote and provide

intermediate yields and to improve the rate of returns on investments in planted forests,

through interplanting and underplanting valuable crops;

f. Developing/strengthening a national and/or master plan for planted forests as a priority,

indicating, inter alia, the location, scope and species, and specifying areas of existing planted

forests requiring rehabilitation, taking into account the economic aspect for future planted

forest development, giving emphasis to native species;

g. Increasing the protection of forests from pollutants, fire, pests and diseases and other human- made interferences such as forest poaching, mining and unmitigated shifting cultivation, the

uncontrolled introduction of exotic plant and animal species, as well as developing and

accelerating research for a better understanding of problems relating to the management and

regeneration of all types of forests; strengthening and/or establishing appropriate measures to

assess and/or check inter-border movement of plants and related materials;

h. Stimulating development of urban forestry for the greening of urban, peri-urban and rural

human settlements for amenity, recreation and production purposes and for protecting trees

and groves;

i. Launching or improving opportunities for particpation of all people, including youth, women,

indigenous people and local communities in the formulation, development and

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implementation of forest-related programmes and other activities, taking due account of the

local needs and cultural values;

j. Limiting and aiming to halt destructive shifting cultivation by addressing the underlying

social and ecological causes.

(b) Data and information

11.14. Management-related activities should involve collection, compilation and analysis of

data/information, including baseline surveys. Some of the specific activities include the following:

a. Carrying out surveys and developing and implementing land-use plans for appropriate

greening/planting/afforestation/reforestation/forest rehabilitation;

b. Consolidating and updating land-use and forest inventory and management information for

management and land-use planning of wood and non-wood resources, including data on

shifting cultivation and other agents of forest destruction;

c. Consolidating information on genetic resources and related biotechnology, including surveys

and studies, as necessary;

d. Carrying out surveys and research on local/indigenous knowledge of trees and forests and

their uses to improve the planning and implementation of sustainable forest management;

e. Compiling and analysing research data on species/site interaction of species used in planted

forests and assessing the potential impact on forests of climatic change, as well as effects of

forests on climate, and initiating in-depth studies on the carbon cycle relating to different

forest types to provide scientific advice and technical support;

f. Establishing linkages with other data/information sources that relate to sustainable

management and use of forests and improving access to data and information;

g. Developing and intensifying research to improve knowledge and understanding of problems

and natural mechanisms related to the management and rehabilitation of forests, including

research on fauna and its interrelation with forests;

h. Consolidating information on forest conditions and site-influencing immissions and

emissions.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

11.15. The greening of appropriate areas is a task of global importance and impact. The international and

regional community should provide technical cooperation and other means for this programme area.

Specific activities of an international nature, in support of national efforts, should include the

following:

a. Increasing cooperative actions to reduce pollutants and trans-boundary impacts affecting the

health of trees and forests and conservation of representative ecosystems;

b. Coordinating regional and subregional research on carbon sequestration, air pollution and

other environmental issues;

c. Documenting and exchanging information/experience for the benefit of countries with similar

problems and prospects;

d. Strengthening the coordination and improving the capacity and ability of intergovernmental

organizations such as FAO, ITTO, UNEP and UNESCO to provide technical support for the

management, conservation and sustainable development of forests, including support for the

negotiation of the International Tropical Timber Agreement of 1983, due in 1992/93.

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Means of implementation

(a) Financial and cost evaluation

11.16. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $10 billion, including about $3.7 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

11.17. Data analysis, planning, research, transfer/development of technology and/or training activities

form an integral part of the programme activities, providing the scientific and technological means of

implementation. National institutions should:

a. Develop feasibility studies and operational planning related to major forest activities;

b. Develop and apply environmentally sound technology relevant to the various activities listed;

c. Increase action related to genetic improvement and application of biotechnology for

improving productivity and tolerance to environmental stress and including, for example, tree

breeding, seed t echnology, seed procurement networks, germ-plasm banks, “in vitro”

techniques, and in situ and ex situ conservation.

(c) Human resource development

11.18. Essential means for effectively implementing the activities include training and development of

appropriate skills, working facilities and conditions, public motivation and awareness. Specific

activities include:

a. Providing specialized training in planning, management, environmental conservation,

biotechnology etc.;

b. Establishing demonstration areas to serve as models and training facilities;

c. Supporting local organizations, communities, non-governmental organizations and private

land owners, in particular women, youth, farmers and indigenous people/shifting cultivators,

through extension and provision of inputs and training.

(d) Capacity-building

11.19. National Governments, the private sector, local organizations/communities, indigenous people,

labour unions and non-governmental organizations should develop capacities, duly supported by

relevant international organizations, to implement the programme activities. Such capacities should be

developed and strengthened in harmony with the programme activities. Capacity-building activities

include policy and legal frameworks, national institution building, human resource development,

development of research and technology, development of infrastructure, enhancement of public

awareness etc.

C. Promoting efficient utilization and assessment to recover the full valuation of the goods and

services provided by forests, forest lands and woodlands

Basis for action

11.20. The vast potential of forests and forest lands as a major resource for development is not yet fully

realized. The improved management of forests can increase the production of goods and services and,

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in particular, the yield of wood and non-wood forest products, thus helping to generate additional

employment and income, additional value through processing and trade of forest products, increased

contribution to foreign exchange earnings, and increased return on investment. Forest resources, being

renewable, can be sustainably managed in a manner that is compatible with environmental

conservation. The implications of the harvesting of forest resources for the other values of the forest

should be taken fully into consideration in the development of forest policies. It is also possible to

increase the value of forests through non-damaging uses such as eco-tourism and the managed supply

of genetic materials. Concerted action is needed in order to increase people’s perception of the value of

forests and of the benefits they provide. The survival of forests and their continued contribution to

human welfare depends to a great extent on succeeding in this endeavour.

Objectives

11.21. The objectives of this programme area are as follows:

a. To improve recognition of the social, economic and ecological values of trees, forests and

forest lands, including the consequences of the damage caused by the lack of forests; to

promote methodologies with a view to incorporating social, economic and ecological values

of trees, forests and forest lands into the national economic accounting systems; to ensure

their sustainable management in a way that is consistent with land use, environmental

considerations and development needs;

b. To promote efficient, rational and sustainable utilization of all types of forests and vegetation

inclusive of other related lands and forest-based resources, through the development of

efficient forest-based processing industries, value-adding secondary processing and trade in

forest products, based on sustainably managed forest resources and in accordance with plans

that integrate all wood and non-wood values of forests;

c. To promote more efficient and sustainable use of forests and trees for fuelwood and energy

supplies;

d. To promote more comprehensive use and economic contributions of forest areas by

incorporating eco-tourism into forest management and planning.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

11.22. Governments, with the support of the private sector, scientific institutions, indigenous people,

non-governmental organizations, cooperatives and entrepreneurs, where appropriate, should undertake

the following activities, properly coordinated at the national level, with financial and technical

cooperation from int ernational organizations:

a. Carrying out detailed investment studies, supply-demand harmonization and environmental

impact analysis to rationalize and improve trees and forest utilization and to develop and

establish appropriate incentive schemes and regulatory measures, including tenurial

arrangements, to provide a favourable investment climate and promote better management;

b. Formulating scientifically sound criteria and guidelines for the management, conservation and

sustainable development of all types of forests;

c. Improving environmentally sound methods and practices of forest harvesting, which are

ecologically sound and economically viable, including planning and management, improved

use of equipment, storage and transportation to reduce and, if possible, maximize the use of

waste and improve value of both wood and non-wood forest products;

d. Promoting the better use and development of natural forests and woodlands, including planted

forests, wherever possible, through appropriate and environmentally sound and economically

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viable activities, including silvicultural practices and management of other plant and animal

species;

e. Promoting and supporting the downstream processing of forest products to increase retained

value and other benefits;

f. Promoting/popularizing non-wood forest products and other forms of forest resources, apart

from fuelwood (e.g., medicinal plants, dyes, fibres, gums, resins, fodder, cultural products,

rattan, bamboo) through programmes and social forestry/participatory forest activities,

including research on their processing and uses;

g. Developing, expanding and/or improving the effectiveness and efficiency of forest-based

processing industries, both wood and non-wood based, involving such aspects as efficient

conversion technology and improved sustainable utilization of harvesting and process

residues; promoting underutilized species in natural forests through research, demonstration

and commercialization; promoting value-adding secondary processing for improved

employment, income and ret ained value; and promoting/improving markets for, and trade in,

forest products through relevant institutions, policies and facilities;

h. Promoting and supporting the management of wildlife, as well as eco-tourism, including

farming, and encouraging and supporting the husbandry and cultivation of wild species, for

improved rural income and employment, ensuring economic and social benefits without

harmful ecological impacts;

i. Promoting appropriate small-scale forest-based enterprises for supporting rural development

and local entrepreneurship;

j. Improving and promoting methodologies for a comprehensive assessment that will capture the

full value of forests, with a view to including that value in the market-based pricing structure

of wood and non-wood based products;

k. Harmonizing sustainable development of forests with national development needs and trade

policies that are compatible with the ecologically sound use of forest resources, using, for

example, the ITTO Guidelines for Sustainable Management of Tropical Forests;

l. Developing, adopting and strengthening national programmes for accounting the economic

and non-economic value of forests.

(b) Data and information

11.23. The objectives and management-related activities presuppose data and information analysis,

feasibility studies, market surveys and review of technological information. Some of the relevant

activities include:

a. Undertaking analysis of supply and demand for forest products and services, to ensure

efficiency in their utilization, wherever necessary;

b. Carrying out investment analysis and feasibility studies, including environmental impact

assessment, for establishing forest-based processing enterprises;

c. Conducting research on the properties of currently underutilized species for their promotion

and commercialization;

d. Supporting market surveys of forest products for trade promotion and intelligence;

e. Facilitating the provision of adequate technological information as a measure to promote

better utilization of forest resources.

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(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

11.24. Cooperation and assistance of international organizations and the international community in

technology transfer, specialization and promotion of fair terms of trade, without resorting to unilateral

restrictions and/or bans on forest products contrary to GATT and other multilateral trade agreements,

the application of appropriate market mechanisms and incentives will help in addressing global

environmental concerns. Strengthening the coordination and performance of existing international

organizations, in particular FAO, UNIDO, UNESCO, UNEP, ITC/UNCTAD/GATT, ITTO and ILO,

for providing technical assistance and guidance in this programme area is another specific activity.

Means of implementation

(a) Financial and cost evaluation

11.25. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $18 billion, including about $880 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

11.26. The programme activities presuppose major research efforts and studies, as well as improvement

of technology. This should be coordinated by national Governments, in collaboration with and

supported by relevant international organizations and institutions. Some of the specific components

include:

a. Research on properties of wood and non-wood products and their uses, to promote improved

utilization;

b. Development and application of environmentally sound and less-polluting technology for

forest utilization;

c. Models and techniques of outlook analysis and development planning;

d. Scientific investigations on the development and utilization of non-timber forest products;

e. Appropriate methodologies to comprehensively assess the value of forests.

(c) Human resource development

11.27. The success and effectiveness of the programme area depends on the availability of skilled

personnel. Specialized training is an important factor in this regard. New emphasis should be given to

the incorporation of women. Human resource development for programme implementation, in

quantitative and qualitative terms, should include:

a. Developing required specialized skills to implement the programme, including establishing

special training facilities at all levels;

b. Introducing/strengthening refresher training courses, including fellowships and study tours, to

update skills and technological know-how and improve productivity;

c. Strengthening capability for research, planning, economic analysis, periodical evaluations and

evaluation, relevant to improved utilization of forest resources;

d. Promoting efficiency and capability of private and cooperative sectors through provision of

facilities and incentives.

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(d) Capacity-building

11.28. Capacity-building, including strengthening of existing capacity, is implicit in the programme

activities. Improving administration, policy and plans, national institutions, human resources, research

and scientific capabilities, technology development, and periodical evaluations and evaluation are

important components of capacity-building.

D. Establishing and/or strengthening capacities for the planning, assessment and systematic

observations of forests and related programmes, projects and activities, including commercial trade

and processes

Basis for action

11.29. Assessment and systematic observations are essential components of long-term planning, for

evaluating effects, quantitatively and qualitatively, and for rectifying inadequacies. This mechanism,

however, is one of the often neglected aspects of forest resources, management, conservation and

development. In many cases, even the basic information related to the area and type of forests, existing

potential and volume of harvest is lacking. In many developing countries, there is a lack of structures

and mechanisms to carry out these functions. There is an urgent need to rectify this situation for a

better understanding of the role and importance of forests and to realistically plan for their effective

conservation, management, regeneration, and sustainable development.

Objectives

11.30. The objectives of this programme area are as follows:

a. To strengthen or establish systems for the assessment and systematic observations of forests

and forest lands with a view to assessing the impacts of programmes, projects and activities

on the quality and extent of forest resources, land available for afforestation, and land tenure,

and to integrate the systems in a continuing process of research and in-depth analysis, while

ensuring necessary modifications and improvements for planning and decision-making.

Specific emphasis should be given to the participation of rural people in these processes;

b. To provide economists, planners, decision makers and local communities with sound and

adequate updated information on forests and forest land resources.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

11.31. Governments and institutions, in collaboration, where necessary, with appropriate international

agencies and organizations, universities and non-governmental organizations, should undertake

assessments and systematic observations of forests and related programmes and processes with a view

to their continuous improvement. This should be linked to related activities of research and

management and, wherever possible, be built upon existing systems. Major activities to be considered

are:

a. Assessing and carrying out systematic observations of the quantitative and qualitative

situation and changes of forest cover and forest resources endowments, including land

classification, land use and updates of its status, at the appropriate national level, and linking

this activity, as appropriate, with planning as a basis for policy and programme formulation;

b. Establishing national assessment and systematic observation systems and evaluation of

programmes and processes, including establishment of definitions, standards, norms and

intercalibration methods, and the capability for initiating corrective actions as well as

improving the formulation and implementation of programmes and projects;

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c. Making estimates of impacts of activities affecting forestry developments and conservation

proposals, in terms of key variables such as developmental goals, benefits and costs,

contributions of forests to other sectors, community welfare, environmental conditions and

biological diversity and their impacts at the local, regional and global levels, where

appropriate, to assess the changing technological and financial needs of countries;

d. Developing national systems of forest resource assessment and valuation, including necessary

research and data analysis, which account for, where possible, the full range of wood and non- wood forest products and services, and incorporating results in plans and strategies and, where

feasible, in national systems of accounts and planning;

e. Establishing necessary intersectoral and programme linkages, including improved access to

information, in order to support a holistic approach to planning and programming.

(b) Data and information

11.32. Reliable data and information are vital to this programme area. National Governments, in

collaboration, where necessary, with relevant international organizations, should, as appropriate,

undertake to improve data and information continuously and to ensure its exchange. Major activities to

be considered are as follows:

a. Collecting, consolidating and exchanging existing information and establishing baseline

information on aspects relevant to this programme area;

b. Harmonizing the methodologies for programmes involving data and information activities to

ensure accuracy and consistency;

c. Undertaking special surveys on, for example, land capability and suitability for afforestation

action;

d. Enhancing research support and improving access to and exchange of research results.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

11.33. The international community should extend to the Governments concerned necessary technical

and financial support for implementing this programme area, including consideration of the following

activities:

a. Establishing conceptual framework and formulating acceptable criteria, norms and definitions

for systematic observations and assessment of forest resources;

b. Establishing and strengthening national institutional coordination mechanisms for forest

assessment and systematic observation activities;

c. Strengthening existing regional and global networks for the exchange of relevant information;

d. Strengthening the capacity and ability and improving the performance of existing

international organizations, such as the Consultative Group on International Agricultural

Research (CGIAR), FAO, ITTO, UNEP, UNESCO and UNIDO, to provide technical support

and guidance in this programme area.

Means of implementation

(a) Financial and cost evaluation

11.34. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $750 million, including about $230 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

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programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

11.35. Accelerating development consists of implementing the management-related and data/information

activities cited above. Activities related to global environmental issues are those that will contribute to

global information for assessing/evaluating/addressing environmental issues on a worldwide basis.

Strengthening the capacity of international institutions consists of enhancing the technical staff and the

executing capacity of several international organizat ions in order to meet the requirements of

countries.

(b) Scientific and technological means

11.36. Assessment and systematic observation activities involve major research efforts, statistical

modelling and technological innovation. These have been internalized into the management-related

activities. The activities in turn will improve the technological and scientific content of assessment and

periodical evaluations. Some of the specific scientific and technological components included under

these activities are:

a. Developing technical, ecological and economic methods and models related to periodical

evaluations and evaluation;

b. Developing data systems, data processing and statistical modelling;

c. Remote sensing and ground surveys;

d. Developing geographic information systems;

e. Assessing and improving technology.

11.37. These are to be linked and harmonized with similar activities and components in the other

programme areas.

(c) Human resource development

11.38. The programme activities foresee the need and include provision for human resource development

in terms of specialization (e.g., the use of remote-sensing, mapping and statistical modelling), training,

technology transfer, fellowships and field demonstrations.

(d) Capacity-building

11.39. National Governments, in collaboration with appropriate international organizations and

institutions, should develop the necessary capacity for implementing this programme area. This should

be harmonized with capacity-building for other programme areas. Capacity-building should cover

such aspects as policies, public administration, national-level institutions, human resource and skill

development, research capability, technology development, information systems, programme

evaluation, intersectoral coordination and international cooperation.

(e) Funding of international and regional cooperation

11.40. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $750 million, including about $530 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 12

MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: COMBATING DESERTIFICATION

AND DROUGHT

12.1. Fragile ecosystems are important ecosystems, with unique features and resources. Fragile ecosystems

include deserts, semi-arid lands, mountains, wetlands, small islands and certain coastal areas. Most of

these ecosystems are regional in scope, as they transcend national boundaries. This chapter addresses

land resource issues in deserts, as well as arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. Sustainable

mountain development is addressed in chapter 13; small islands and coastal areas are discussed in

chapter 17.

12.2. Desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various

factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Desertification affects about one sixth of

the world’s population, 70 per cent of all drylands, amounting to 3.6 billion hectares, and one quarter

of the total land area of the world. The most obvious impact of desertification, in addition to

widespread poverty, is the degradation of 3.3 billion hectares of the total area of rangeland,

constituting 73 per cent of the rangeland with a low potential for human and animal carrying

capacity; decline in soil fertility and soil structure on about 47 per cent of the dryland areas

constituting marginal rainfed cropland; and the degradation of irrigated cropland, amounting to 30

per cent of the dryland areas with a high population density and agricultural potential.

12.3. The priority in combating desertification should be the implementation of preventive measures for

lands that are not yet degraded, or which are only slightly degraded. However, the severely degraded

areas should not be neglected. In combating desertification and drought, the participation of local

communities, rural organizations, national Governments, non-governmental organizations and

international and regional organizations is essential.

12.4. The following programme areas are included in this chapter:

a. Strengthening the knowledge base and developing information and monitoring systems

for regions prone to desertification and drought, including the economic and social

aspects of these ecosystems;

b. Combating land degradation through, inter alia, intensified soil conservation,

afforestation and reforestation activities;

c. Developing and strengthening integrated development programmes for the eradication of

poverty and promotion of alternative livelihood systems in areas prone to desertification;

d. Developing comprehensive anti-desertification programmes and integrating them into

national development plans and national environmental planning;

e. Developing comprehensive drought preparedness and drought-relief schemes, including

self-help arrangements, for drought-prone areas and designing programmes to cope with

environmental refugees;

f. Encouraging and promoting popular participation and environmental education, focusing

on desertification control and management of the effects of drought.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Strengthening the knowledge base and developing information and monitoring systems for regions

prone to desertification and drought, including the economic and social aspects of these ecosystems

Basis for action

12.5. The global assessments of the status and rate of desertification conducted by the United Nations

Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1977, 1984 and 1991 have revealed insufficient basic

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knowledge of desertification processes. Adequate world-wide systematic observation systems are

helpful for the development and implementation of effective anti-desertification programmes. The

capacity of existing international, regional and national institutions, particularly in developing

countries, to generate and exchange relevant information is limited. An integrated and coordinated

information and systematic observation system based on appropriate technology and embracing

global, regional, national and local levels is essential for understanding the dynamics of

desertification and drought processes. It is also important for developing adequate measures to deal

with desertification and drought and improving socio-economic conditions.

Objectives

12.6. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To promote the establishment and/or strengthening of national environmental information

coordination centres that will act as focal points within Governments for sectoral

ministries and provide the necessary standardization and back-up services; to ensure also

that national environmental information systems on desertification and drought are linked

together through a network at subregional, regional and interregional levels;

b. To strengthen regional and global systematic observation networks linked to the

development of national systems for the observation of land degradation and

desertification caused both by climate fluctuations and by human impact, and to identify

priority areas for action;

c. To establish a permanent system at both national and international levels for monitoring

desertification and land degradation with the aim of improving living conditions in the

affected areas.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

12.7. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Establish and/or strengthen environmental information systems at the national level;

b. Strengthen national, state/provincial and local assessment and ensure cooperation/networking

between existing environmental information and monitoring systems, such as Earthwatch and

the Sahara and Sahel Observatory;

c. Strengthen the capacity of national institutions to analyse environmental data so that

ecological change can be monitored and environmental information obtained on a continuing

basis at the national level.

(b) Data and information

12.8. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Review and study the means for measuring the ecological, economic and social consequences

of des ertification and land degradation and introduce the results of these studies

internationally into desertification and land degradation assessment practices;

b. Review and study the interactions between the socio-economic impacts of climate, drought

and desertification and utilize the results of these studies to secure concrete action.

12.9. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

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a. Support the integrated data collection and research work of programmes related to

desertification and drought problems;

b. Support national, regional and global programmes for integrated data collection and research

networks carrying out assessment of soil and land degradation;

c. Strengthen national and regional meteorological and hydrological networks and monitoring

systems to ensure adequate collection of basic information and communication among

national, regional and international centres.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

12.10. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Strengthen regional programmes and international cooperation, such as the Permanent Inter- State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), the Intergovernmental Authority

for Drought and Development (IGADD), the Southern African Development Coordination

Conference (SADCC), the Arab Maghreb Union and other regional organizations, as well as

such organizations as the Sahara and Sahel Observatory;

b. Establish and/or develop a comprehensive desertification, land degradation and human

condition database component that incorporates both physical and socio-economic

parameters. This should be based on existing and, where necessary, additional facilities, such

as those of Earthwatch and other information systems of international, regional and national

institutions strengthened for this purpose;

c. Determine benchmarks and define indicators of progress that facilitate the work of local and

regional organizations in tracking progress in the fight for anti-desertification. Particular

attention should be paid to indicators of local participation.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

12.11. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $350 million, including about $175

million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and

order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and

financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific

strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

12.12. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations working on the issue of desertification and drought, should:

a. Undertake and update existing inventories of natural resources, such as energy, water, soil,

minerals, plant and animal access to food, as well as other resources, such as housing,

employment, health, education and demographic distribution in time and space;

b. Develop integrated information systems for environmental monitoring, accounting and impact

assessment;

c. International bodies should cooperate with national Governments to facilitate the acquisition

and development of appropriate technology for monitoring and combating drought and

desertification.

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(c) Human resource development

12.13. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations working on the issue of desertification and drought, should develop the technical and

professional skills of people engaged in monitoring and assessing the issue of desertification and

drought.

(d) Capacity-building

12.14. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations working on the issue of desertification and drought, should:

a. Strengthen national and local institutions by providing adequate staff equipment and finance

for assessing desertification;

b. Promote the involvement of the local population, particularly women and youth, in the

collection and utilization of environmental information through education and awareness- building.

B. Combating land degradation through, inter alia, intensified soil conservation, afforestation and

reforestation activities

Basis for action

12.15. Desertification affects about 3.6 billion hectares, which is about 70 per cent of the total area of the

world’s drylands or nearly one quarter of the global land area. In combating desertification on

rangeland, rainfed cropland and irrigated land, preventative measures should be launched in areas

which are not yet affected or are only slightly affected by desertification; corrective measures should

be implemented to sustain the productivity of moderately desertified land; and rehabilitative

measures should be taken to recover severely or very severely desertified drylands.

12.16. An increasing vegetation cover would promote and stabilize the hydrological balance in the

dryland areas and maintain land quality and land productivity. Prevention of not yet degraded land

and application of corrective measures and rehabilitation of moderate and severely degraded

drylands, including areas affected by sand dune movements, through the introduction of

environmentally sound, socially acceptable, fair and economically feasible land-use systems. This

will enhance the land carrying capacity and maintenance of biotic resources in fragile ecosystems.

Objectives

12.17. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. As regards areas not yet affected or only slightly affected by desertification, to ensure

appropriate management of existing natural formations (including forests) for the

conservation of biodiversity, watershed protection, sustainability of their production and

agricultural development, and other purposes, with the full participation of indigenous

people;

b. To rehabilitate moderately to severely desertified drylands for productive utilization and

sustain their productivity for agropastoral/agroforestry development through, inter alia,

soil and water conservation;

c. To increase the vegetation cover and support management of biotic resources in regions

affected or prone to desertification and drought, notably through such activities as

afforestation/reforestation, agroforestry, community forestry and vegetation retention

schemes;

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d. To improve management of forest resources, including woodfuel, and to reduce woodfuel

consumption through more efficient utilization, conservation and the enhancement,

development and use of other sources of energy, including alternative sources of energy.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

12.18. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Implement urgent direct preventive measures in drylands that are vulnerable but not yet

affected, or only slightly desertified drylands, by introducing (i) improved land-use

policies and practices for more sustainable land productivity; (ii) appropriate,

environmentally sound and economically feasible agricultural and pastoral technologies;

and (iii) improved management of soil and water resources;

b. Carry out accelerated afforestation and reforestation programmes, using drought- resistant, fast-growing species, in particular native ones, including legumes and other

species, combined with community-based agroforestry schemes. In this regard, creation

of large-scale reforestation and afforestation schemes, particularly through the

establishment of green belts, should be considered, bearing in mind the multiple benefits

of such measures;

c. Implement urgent direct corrective measures in moderately to severely desertified

drylands, in addition to the measures listed in paragraph 19 (a) above, with a view to

restoring and sustaining their productivity;

d. Promote improved land/water/crop-management systems, making it possible to combat

salinization in existing irrigated croplands; and to stabilize rainfed croplands and

introduce improved soil/crop-management systems into land-use practice;

e. Promote participatory management of natural resources, including rangeland, to meet

both the needs of rural populations and conservation purposes, based on innovative or

adapted indigenous technologies;

f. Promote in situ protection and conservation of special ecological areas through

legislation and other means for the purpose of combating desertification while ensuring

the protection of biodiversity;

g. Promote and encourage investment in forestry development in drylands through various

incentives, including legislative measures;

h. Promote the development and use of sources of energy which will lessen pressure on

ligneous resources, including alternative sources of energy and improved stoves.

(b) Data and information

12.19. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop land-use models based on local practices for the improvement of such practices,

with a focus on preventing land degradation. The models should give a better

understanding of the variety of natural and human-induced factors that may contribute to

desertification. Models should incorporate the interaction of both new and traditional

practices to prevent land degradation and reflect the resilience of the whole ecological

and social system;

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b. Develop, test and introduce, with due regard to environmental security considerations,

drought resistant, fast-growing and productive plant species appropriate to the

environment of the regions concerned.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

12.20. The appropriate United Nations agencies, international and regional organizations, non- governmental organizations and bilateral agencies should:

a. Coordinate their roles in combating land degradation and promoting reforestation,

agroforestry and land-management systems in affected countries;

b. Support regional and subregional activities in technology development and

dissemination, training and programme implementation to arrest dryland degradation.

12.21. The national Governments concerned, the appropriate United Nations agencies and bilateral

agencies should strengthen the coordinating role in dryland degradation of subregional

intergovernmental organizations set up to cover these activities, such as CILSS, IGADD, SADCC

and the Arab Maghreb Union.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

12.22. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $6 billion, including about $3 billion from

the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

12.23. Governments at the appropriate level and local communities, with the support of the relevant

international and regional organizations, should:

a. Integrate indigenous knowledge related to forests, forest lands, rangeland and natural

vegetation into research activities on desertification and drought;

b. Promote integrated research programmes on the protection, restoration and conservation

of water and land resources and land-use management based on traditional approaches,

where feasible.

(c) Human resource development

12.24. Governments at the appropriate level and local communities, with the support of the relevant

international and regional organizations, should:

a. Establish mechanisms to ensure that land users, particularly women, are the main actors

in implementing improved land use, including agroforestry systems, in combating land

degradation;

b. Promote efficient extension-service facilities in areas prone to desertification and

drought, particularly for training farmers and pastoralists in the improved management of

land and water resources in drylands.

(d) Capacity-building

12.25. Governments at the appropriate level and local communities, with the support of the relevant

international and regional organizations, should:

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a. Develop and adopt, through appropriate national legislation, and introduce institutionally,

new and environmentally sound development-oriented land-use policies;

b. Support community-based people’s organizations, especially farmers and pastoralists.

C. Developing and strengthening integrated development programmes for the eradication of poverty

and promotion of alternative livelihood systems in areas prone to desertification

Basis for action

12.26. In areas prone to desertification and drought, current livelihood and resource-use systems are not

able to maintain living standards. In most of the arid and semi-arid areas, the traditional livelihood

systems based on agropastoral systems are often inadequate and unsustainable, particularly in view of

the effects of drought and increasing demographic pressure. Poverty is a major factor in accelerating

the rate of degradation and desertification. Action is therefore needed to rehabilitate and improve the

agropastoral systems for sustainable management of rangelands, as well as alternative livelihood

systems.

Objectives

12.27. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To create the capacity of village communities and pastoral groups to take charge of their

development and the management of their land resources on a socially equitable and

ecologically sound basis;

b. To improve production systems in order to achieve greater productivity within approved

programmes for conservation of national resources and in the framework of an integrated

approach to rural development;

c. To provide opportunities for alternative livelihoods as a basis for reducing pressure on

land resources while at the same time providing additional sources of income,

particularly for rural populations, thereby improving their standard of living.

Activi ties

(a) Management-related activities

12.28. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Adopt policies at the national level regarding a decentralized approach to land-resource

management, delegating responsibility to rural organizations;

b. Create or strengthen rural organizations in charge of village and pastoral land

management;

c. Establish and develop local, national and intersectoral mechanisms to handle

environmental and develop mental consequences of land tenure expressed in terms of land

use and land ownership. Particular attention should be given to protecting the property

rights of women and pastoral and nomadic groups living in rural areas;

d. Create or strengthen village associations focused on economic activities of common

pastoral interest (market gardening, transformation of agricultural products, livestock,

herding, etc.);

e. Promote rural credit and mobilization of rural savings through the establishment of rural

banking systems;

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f. Develop infrastructure, as well as local production and marketing capacity, by involving

the local people to promote alternative livelihood systems and alleviate poverty;

g. Establish a revolving fund for credit to rural entrepreneurs and local groups to facilitate

the establishment of cottage industries/business ventures and credit for input to

agropastoral activities.

(b) Data and information

12.29. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Conduct socio-economic baseline studies in order to have a good understanding of the

situation in the programme area regarding, particularly, resource and land tenure issues,

traditional land-management practices and characteristics of production systems;

b. Conduct inventory of natural resources (soil, water and vegetation) and their state of

degradation, based primarily on the knowledge of the local population (e.g., rapid rural

appraisal);

c. Disseminate information on technical packages adapted to the social, economic and

ecological conditions of each;

d. Promote exchange and sharing of information concerning the development of alternative

livelihoods with other agro-ecological regions.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

12.30. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Promote cooperation and exchange of information among the arid and semi-arid land

research institutions concerning techniques and technologies to improve land and labour

productivity, as well as viable production systems;

b. Coordinate and harmonize the implementation of programmes and projects funded by the

international organization communities and non-governmental organizations that are

directed towards the alleviation of poverty and promotion of an alternative livelihood

system.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

12.31. The Conference secretariat has estimated the costs for this programme area in chapter 3

(Combating poverty) and chapter 14 (Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development).

(b) Scientific and technological means

12.32. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Undertake applied research in land use with the support of local research institutions;

b. Facilitate regular national, regional and interregional communication on and exchange of

information and experience between extension officers and researchers;

c. Support and encourage the introduction and use of technologies for the generation of

alternative sources of incomes.

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(c) Human resource development

12.33. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Train members of rural organizations in management skills and train agropastoralists in

such special techniques as soil and water conservation, water harvesting, agroforestry and

small-scale irrigation;

b. Train extension agents and officers in the participatory approach to integrated land

management.

(d) Capacity-building

12.34. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should establish and maintain mechanisms to ensure the integration into sectoral and

national development plans and programmes of strategies for poverty alleviation among the

inhabitants of lands prone to desertification.

D. Developing comprehensive anti-desertification programmes and integrating them into national

development plans and national environmental planning

Basis for action

12.35. In a number of developing countries affected by desertification, the natural resource base is the

main resource upon which the development process must rely. The social systems interacting with

land resources make the problem much more complex, requiring an integrated approach to the

planning and management of land resources. Action plans to combat desertification and drought

should include management aspects of the environment and development, thus conforming with the

approach of integrating national development plans and national environmental action plans.

Objectives

12.36. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To strengthen national institutional capabilities to develop appropriate anti-desertification

programmes and to integrate them into national development planning;

b. To develop and integrate strategic planning frameworks for the development, protection

and management of natural resources in dryland areas into national development plans,

including national plans to combat desertification, and environmental action plans in

countries most prone to desertification;

c. To initiate a long-term process for implementing and monitoring strategies related to

natural resources management;

d. To strengthen regional and international cooperation for combating desertification

through, inter alia, the adoption of legal and other instruments.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

12.37. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Establish or strengthen, national and local anti-desertification authorities within

government and local executive bodies, as well as local committees/associations of land

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users, in all rural communities affected, with a view to organizing working cooperation

between all actors concerned, from the grass-roots level (farmers and pastoralists) to the

higher levels of government;

b. Develop national plans of action to combat desertification and as appropriate, make them

integral parts of national development plans and national environmental action plans;

c. Implement policies directed towards improving land use, managing common lands

appropriately, providing incentives to small farmers and pastoralists, involving women

and encouraging private investment in the development of drylands;

d. Ensure coordination among ministries and institutions working on anti-desertification

programmes at national and local levels.

(b) Data and information

12.38. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should promote information exchange and cooperation with respect to

national planning and programming among affected countries, inter alia, through networking.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

12.39. The relevant international organizations, multilateral financial institutions, non-governmental

organizations and bilateral agencies should strengthen their cooperation in assisting with the

preparation of desertification control programmes and their integration into national planning

strategies, with the establishment of national coordinating and systematic observation mechanisms

and with the regional and global networking of these plans and mechanisms.

12.40. The General Assembly, at its forty-seventh session, should be requested to establish, under the

aegis of the General Assembly, an intergovernmental negotiating committee for the elaboration of an

international convention to combat desertification in in those countries experiencing serious drought

and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, with a view to finalizing such a convention by June

1994.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

12.41. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $180 million, including about $90 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

12.42. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop and introduce appropriate improved sustainable agricultural and pastoral

technologies that are socially and environmentally acceptable and economically feasible;

b. Undertake applied study on the integration of environmental and developmental activities

into national development plans.

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(c) Human resource development

12.43. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should undertake nationwide major anti-desertification awareness/training campaigns

within countries affected through existing national mass media facilities, educational networks and

newly created or strengthened extension services. This should ensure people’s access to knowledge of

desertification and drought and to national plans of action to combat desertification.

(d) Capacity-building

12.44. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should establish and maintain mechanisms to ensure coordination of sectoral

ministries and institutions, including local-level institutions and appropriate non-governmental

organizations, in integrating anti-desertification programmes into national development plans and

national environmental action plans.

E. Developing comprehensive drought preparedness and drought-relief schemes, including self-help

arrangements, for drought-prone areas and designing programmes to cope with environmental

refugees

Basis for action

12.45. Drought, in differing degrees of frequency and severity, is a recurring phenomenon throughout

much of the developing world, especially Africa. Apart from the human toll – an estimated 3 million

people died in the mid-1980s because of drought in sub-Saharan Africa – the economic costs of

drought-related disasters are also high in terms of lost production, misused inputs and diversion of

development resources.

12.46. Early-warning systems to forecast drought will make possible the implementation of drought- preparedness schemes. Integrated packages at the farm and watershed level, such as alternative

cropping strategies, soil and water conservation and promotion of water harvesting techniques, could

enhance the capacity of land to cope with drought and provide basic necessities, thereby minimizing

the number of environmental refugees and the need for emergency drought relief. At the same time,

contingency arrangements for relief are needed for periods of acute scarcity.

Objectives

12.47. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To develop national strategies for drought preparedness in both the short and long term,

aimed at reducing the vulnerability of production systems to drought;

b. To strengthen the flow of early-warning information to decision makers and land users to

enable nations to implement strategies for drought intervention;

c. To develop and integrate drought-relief schemes and means of coping with

environmental refugees into national and regional development planning.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

12.48. In drought-prone areas, Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant

international and regional organizations, should:

a. Design strategies to deal with national food deficiencies in periods of production

shortfall. These strategies should deal with issues of storage and stocks, imports, port

facilities, food storage, transport and distribution;

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b. Improve national and regional capacity for agrometeorology and contingency crop

planning. Agrometeorology links the frequency, content and regional coverage of

weather forecasts with the requirements of crop planning and agricultural extension;

c. Prepare rural projects for providing short-term rural employment to drought-affected

households. The loss of income and entitlement to food is a common source of distress in

times of drought. Rural works help to generate the income required to buy food for poor

households;

d. Establish contingency arrangements, where necessary, for food and fodder distribution

and water supply;

e. Establish budgetary mechanisms for providing, at short notice, resources for drought

relief;

f. Establish safety nets for the most vulnerable households.

(b) Data and information

12.49. Governments of affected countries, at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant

international and regional organizations, should:

a. Implement research on seasonal forecasts to improve contingency planning and relief

operations and allow preventive measures to be taken at the farm level, such as the

selection of appropriate varieties and farming practices, in times of drought;

b. Support applied research on ways of reducing water loss from soils, on ways of

increasing the water absorption capacities of soils and on water harvesting techniques in

drought-prone areas;

c. Strengthen national early -warning systems, with particular emphasis on the area of risk- mapping, remote-sensing, agrometeorological modelling, integrated multidisciplinary

crop-forecasting techniques and computerized food supply/demand analysis.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

12.50. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Establish a system of stand-by capacities in terms of foodstock, logistical support,

personnel and finance for a speedy international response to drought-related emergencies;

b. Support programmes of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) on

agrohydrology and agrometeorology, the Programme of the Regional Training Centre for

Agrometeorology and Operational Hydrology and their Applications (AGRHYMET),

drought-monitoring centres and the African Centre of Meteorological Applications for

Development (ACMAD), as well as the efforts of the Permanent Inter-State Committee

on Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) and the Intergovernmental Authority for

Drought and Development (IGADD);

c. Support FAO programmes and other programmes for the development of national early –

warning systems and food security assistance schemes;

d. Strengthen and expand the scope of existing regional programmes and the activities of

appropriate United Nations organs and organizations, such as the World Food

Programme (WFP), the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator

(UNDRO) and the United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office as well as of non- governmental organizations, aimed at mitigating the effects of drought and emergencies.

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Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

12.51. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $1.2 billion, including about $1.1 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

12.52. Governments at the appropriate level and drought-prone communities, with the support of the

relevant international and regional organizations, should:

a. Use traditional mechanisms to cope with hunger as a means of channelling relief and

development assistance;

b. Strengthen and develop national, regional and local interdisciplinary research and

training capabilities for drought-prevention strategies.

(c) Human resource development

12.53. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Promote the training of decision makers and land users in the effective utilization of

information from early-warning systems;

b. Strengthen research and national training capabilities to assess the impact of drought and

to develop methodologies to forecast drought.

(d) Capacity-building

12.54. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Improve and maintain mechanisms with adequate staff, equipment and finances for

monitoring drought parameters to take preventive measures at regional, national and local

levels;

b. Establish interministerial linkages and coordinating units for drought monitoring, impact

assessment and management of drought-relief schemes.

F. Encouraging and promoting popular participation and environmental education, focusing on

desertification control and management of the effects of drought

Basis for action

12.55. The experience to date on the successes and failures of programmes and projects points to the

need for popular support to sustain activities related to desertification and drought control. But it is

necessary to go beyond the theoretical ideal of popular participation and to focus on obtaining actual

active popular involvement, rooted in the concept of partnership. This implies the sharing of

responsibilities and the mutual involvement of all parties. In this context, this programme area should

be considered an essential supporting component of all desertification-control and drought-related

activities.

Objectives

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12.56. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To develop and increase public awareness and knowledge concerning desertification and

drought, including the integration of environmental education in the curriculum of

primary and secondary schools;

b. To establish and promote true partnership between government authorities, at both the

national and local levels, other executing agencies, non-governmental organizations and

land users stricken by drought and desertification, giving land users a responsible role in

the planning and execution processes in order to benefit fully from development projects;

c. To ensure that the partners understand one another’s needs, objectives and points of view

by providing a variety of means such as training, public awareness and open dialogue;

d. To support local communities in their own efforts in combating desertification, and to

draw on the knowledge and experience of the populations concerned, ensuring the full

participation of women and indigenous populations.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

12.57. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Adopt policies and establish administrative structures for more decentralized decision- making and implementation;

b. Establish and utilize mechanisms for the consultation and involvement of land users and

for enhancing capability at the grass-roots level to identify and/or contribute to the

identification and planning of action;

c. Define specific programme/project objectives in cooperation with local communities;

design local management plans to include such measures of progress, thereby providing a

means of altering project design or changing management practices, as appropriate;

d. Introduce legislative, institutional/organizational and financial measures to secure user

involvement and access to land resources;

e. Establish and/or expand favourable conditions for the provision of services, such as credit

facilities and marketing outlets for rural populations;

f. Develop training programmes to increase the level of education and participation of

people, particularly women and indigenous groups, through, inter alia, literacy and the

development of technical skills;

g. Create rural banking systems to facilitate access to credit for rural populations,

particularly women and indigenous groups, and to promote rural savings;

h. Adopt appropriate policies to stimulate private and public investment.

(b) Data and information

12.58. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Review, develop and disseminate gender-disaggregated information, skills and know- how at all levels on ways of organizing and promoting popular participation;

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b. Accelerate the development of technological know-how, focusing on appropriate and

intermediate technology;

c. Disseminate knowledge about applied research results on soil and water issues,

appropriate species, agricultural techniques and technological know-how.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

12.59. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Develop programmes of support to regional organizations such as CILSS, IGADD,

SADCC and the Arab Maghreb Union and other intergovernmental organizations in

Africa and other parts of the world, to strengthen outreach programmes and increase the

participation of non-governmental organizations together with rural populations;

b. Develop mechanisms for facilitating cooperation in technology and promote such

cooperation as an element of all external assistance and activities related to technical

assistance projects in the public or private sector;

c. Promote collaboration among different actors in environment and development

programmes;

d. Encourage the emergence of representative organizational structures to foster and sustain

interorganizational cooperation.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

12.60. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $1.0 billion, including about $500 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

12.61. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should promote the development of indigenous know-how and technology

transfer.

(c) Human resource development

12.62. Governments, at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Support and/or strengthen institutions involved in public education, including the local media,

schools and community groups;

b. Increase the level of public education.

(d) Capacity-building

12.63. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should promote members of local rural organizations and train and appoint

more extension officers working at the local level.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 13

MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS: SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN

DEVELOPMENT

13.1. Mountains are an important source of water, energy and biological diversity. Furthermore, they are a

source of such key resources as minerals, forest products and agricultural products and of recreation.

As a major ecosystem representing the complex and interrelated ecology of our planet, mountain

environments are essential to the survival of the global ecosystem. Mountain ecosystems are,

however, rapidly changing. They are susceptible to accelerated soil erosion, landslides and rapid loss

of habitat and genetic diversity. On the human side, there is widespread poverty among mountain

inhabitants and loss of indigenous knowledge. As a result, most global mountain areas are

experiencing environmental degradation. Hence, the proper management of mountain resources and

socio-economic development of the people deserves immediate action.

13.2. About 10 per cent of the world’s population depends on mountain resources. A much larger

percentage draws on other mountain resources, including and especially water. Mountains are a

storehouse of biological diversity and endangered species.

13.3. Two programme areas are included in this chapter to further elaborate the problem of fragile

ecosystems with regard to all mountains of the world. These are:

a. Generating and strengthening knowledge about the ecology and sustainable development

of mountain ecosystems;

b. Promoting integrated watershed development and alternative livelihood opportunities.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Generating and strengthening knowledge about the ecology and sustainable development of

mountain ecosystems

Basis for action

13.4. Mountains are highly vulnerable to human and natural ecological imbalance. Mountains are the areas

most sensitive to all climatic changes in the atmo sphere. Specific information on ecology, natural

resource potential and socio-economic activities is essential. Mountain and hillside areas hold a rich

variety of ecological systems. Because of their vertical dimensions, mountains create gradients of

temperature, precipitation and insolation. A given mountain slope may include several climatic

systems – such as tropical, subtropical, temperate and alpine – each of which represents a microcosm

of a larger habitat diversity. There is, however, a lack of knowledge of mountain ecosystems. The

creation of a global mountain database is therefore vital for launching programmes that contribute to

the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems.

Objectives

13.5. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To undertake a survey of the different forms of soils, forest, water use, crop, plant and

animal resources of mountain ecosystems, taking into account the work of existing

international and regional organizations;

b. To maintain and generate database and information systems to facilitate the integrated

management and environmental assessment of mountain ecosystems, taking into account

the work of existing international and regional organizations;

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c. To improve and build the existing land/water ecological knowledge base regarding

technologies and agricultural and conservation practices in the mountain regions of the

world, with the participation of local communities;

d. To create and strengthen the communications network and information clearing-house for

existing organizations concerned with mountain issues;

e. To improve coordination of regional efforts to protect fragile mountain ecosystems

through the consideration of appropriate mechanisms, including regional legal and other

instruments;

f. To generate information to establish databases and information systems to facilitate an

evaluation of environmental risks and natural disasters in mountain ecosystems.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

13.6. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Strengthen existing institutions or establish new ones at local, national and regional levels

to generate a multidisciplinary land/water ecological knowledge base on mountain

ecosystems;

b. Promote national policies that would provide incentives to local people for the use and

transfer of environment-friendly technologies and farming and conservation practices;

c. Build up the knowledge base and understanding by creating mechanisms for cooperation

and information exchange among national and regional institutions working on fragile

ecosystems;

d. Encourage policies that would provide incentives to farmers and local people to

undertake conservation and regenerative measures;

e. Diversify mountain economies, inter alia, by creating and/or strengthening tourism, in

accordance with integrated management of mountain areas;

f. Integrate all forest, rangeland and wildlife activities in such a way that specific mountain

ecosystems are maintained;

g. Establish appropriate natural reserves in representative species-rich sites and areas.

(b) Data and information

13.7. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Maintain and establish meteorological, hydrological and physical monitoring analysis and

capabilities that would encompass the climatic diversity as well as water distribution of

various mountain regions of the world;

b. Build an inventory of different forms of soils, forests, water use, and crop, plant and

animal genetic resources, giving priority to those under threat of extinction. Genetic

resources should be protected in situ by maintaining and establishing protected areas and

improving traditional farming and animal husbandry activities and establishing

programmes for evaluating the potential value of the resources;

c. Identify hazardous areas that are most vulnerable to erosion, floods, landslides,

earthquakes, snow avalanches and other natural hazards;

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d. Identify mountain areas threatened by air pollution from neighbouring industrial and

urban areas.

(c) International and regional cooperation

13.8. National Governments and intergovernmental organizations should:

a. Coordinate regional and international cooperation and facilitate an exchange of

information and experience among the specialized agencies, the World Bank, IFAD and

other international and regional organizations, national Governments, research

institutions and non-governmental organizations working on mountain development;

b. Encourage regional, national and international networking of people’s initiatives and the

activities of international, regional and local non-governmental organizations working on

mountain development, such as the United Nations University (UNU), the Woodland

Mountain Institutes (WMI), the International Center for Integrated Mountain

Development (ICIMOD), the International Mountain Society (IMS), the African

Mountain Association and the Andean Mountain Association, besides supporting those

organizations in exchange of information and experience;

c. Protect Fragile Mountain Ecosystem through the consideration of appropriate

mechanisms including regional legal and other instruments.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

13.9. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $50 million from the international community on grant or

concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been

reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional,

will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for

implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means 13.10. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the

relevant international and regional organizations, should strengthen scientific research and technological

development programmes, including diffusion through national and regional institutions, particularly in

meteorology, hydrology, forestry, soil sciences and plant sciences.

(c) Human resource development

13.10. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should:

a. Launch training and extension programmes in environmentally appropriate technologies

and practices that would be suitable to mountain ecosystems;

b. Support higher education through fellowships and research grants for environmental

studies in mountains and hill areas, particularly for candidates from indigenous mountain

populations;

c. Undertake environmental education for farmers, in particular for women, to help the rural

population better understand the ecological issues regarding the sustainable development

of mountain ecosystems.

(d) Capacity-building

13.11. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should build up national and regional institutional bases that could carry out research,

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training and dissemination of information on the sustainable development of the economies of fragile

ecosystems.

B. Promoting integrated watershed development and alternative livelihood opportunities

Basis for action

13.13. Nearly half of the world’s population is affected in various ways by mountain ecology and the

degradation of watershed areas. About 10 per cent of the Earth’s population lives in mountain areas

with higher slopes, while about 40 per cent occupies the adjacent medium- and lower-watershed

areas. There are serious problems of ecological deterioration in these watershed areas. For example,

in the hillside areas of the Andean countries of South America a large portion of the farming

population is now faced with a rapid deterioration of land resources. Similarly, the mountain and

upland areas of the Himalayas, South-East Asia and East and Central Africa, which make vital

contributions to agricultural production, are threatened by cultivation of marginal lands due to

expanding population. In many areas this is accompanied by excessive livestock grazing,

deforestation and loss of biomass cover.

13.14. Soil erosion can have a devastating impact on the vast numbers of rural people who depend on

rainfed agriculture in the mountain and hillside areas. Poverty, unemployment, poor health and bad

sanitation are widespread. Promoting integrated watershed development programmes through

effective participation of local people is a key to preventing further ecological imbalance. An

integrated approach is needed for conserving, upgrading and using the natural resource base of land,

water, plant, animal and human resources. In addition, promoting alternative livelihood opportunities,

particularly through development of employment schemes that increase the productive base, will

have a significant role in improving the standard of living among the large rural population living in

mountain ecosystems.

Objectives

13.15. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. By the year 2000, to develop appropriate land-use planning and management for both

arable and non-arable land in mountain-fed watershed areas to prevent soil erosion,

increase biomass production and maintain the ecological balance;

b. To promote income-generating activities, such as sustainable tourism, fisheries and

environmentally sound mining, and to improve infrastructure and social services, in

particular to protect the livelihoods of local communities and indigenous people;

c. To develop technical and institutional arrangements for affected countries to mitigate the

effects of natural disasters through hazard-prevention measures, risk zoning, early- warning systems, evacuation plans and emergency supplies.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

13.16. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant int ernational and regional

organizations, should:

a. Undertake measures to prevent soil erosion and promote erosion-control activities in all

sectors;

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b. Establish task forces or watershed development committees, complementing existing

institutions, to coordinate integrated services to support local initiatives in animal

husbandry, forestry, horticulture and rural development at all administrative levels;

c. Enhance popular participation in the management of local resources through appropriate

legislation;

d. Support non-governmental organizations and other private groups assisting local

organizations and communities in the preparation of projects that would enhance

participatory development of local people;

e. Provide mechanisms to preserve threatened areas that could protect wildlife, conserve

biological diversity or serve as national parks;

f. Develop national policies that would provide incentives to farmers and local people to

undertake conservation measures and to use environment-friendly technologies;

g. Undertake income-generating activities in cottage and agro-processing industries, such as

the cultivation and processing of medicinal and aromatic plants;

h. Undertake the above activities, taking into account the need for full participation of

women, including indigenous people and local communities, in development.

(b) Data and information

13.17. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Maintain and establish systematic observation and evaluation capacities at the national,

state or provincial level to generate information for daily operations and to assess the

environmental and socio-economic impacts of projects;

b. Generate data on alternative livelihoods and diversified production systems at the village

level on annual and tree crops, livestock, poultry, beekeeping, fisheries, village

industries, markets, transport and income-earning opportunities, taking fully into account

the role of women and integrating them into the planning and implementation process.

(c) International and regional cooperation

13.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Strengthen the role of appropriate international research and training institutes such as the

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR) and the

International Board for Soil Research and Management (IBSRAM), as well as regional

research centres, such as the Woodland Mountain Institutes and the International Center

for Integrated Mountain Development, in undertaking applied research relevant to

watershed development;

b. Promote regional cooperation and exchange of data and information among countries

sharing the same mountain ranges and river basins, particularly those affected by

mountain disasters and floods;

c. Maintain and establish partnerships with non-governmental organizations and other

private groups working in watershed development.

Means of implementation

(a) Financial and cost evaluation

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13.19. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $13 billion, including about $1.9 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

13.20. Financing for the promotion of alternative livelihoods in mountain ecosystems should be viewed

as part of a country’s anti-poverty or alternative livelihoods programme, which is also discussed in

chapter 3 (Combating poverty) and chapter 14 (Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural

development) of Agenda 21.

(b) Scientific and technical means

13.21. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

• Consider undertaking pilot projects that combine environmental protection and

development functions with particular emphasis on some of the traditional environmental

management practices or systems that have a good impact on the environment;

• Generate technologies for specific watershed and farm conditions through a participatory

approach involving local men and women, researchers and extension agents who will

carry out experiments and trials on farm conditions;

• Promote technologies of vegetative conservation measures for erosion prevention, in situ

moisture management, improved cropping technology, fodder production and

agroforestry that are low-cost, simple and easily adopted by local people.

(c) Human resource development

13.22. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Promote a multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral approach in training and the dissemination

of knowledge to local people on a wide range of issues, such as household production

systems, conservation and utilization of arable and non-arable land, treatment of drainage

lines and recharging of groundwater, livestock management, fisheries, agroforestry and

horticulture;

b. Develop human resources by providing access to education, health, energy and

infrastructure;

c. Promote local awareness and preparedness for disaster prevention and mitigation,

combined with the latest available technology for early warning and forecasting.

(d) Capacity-building

13.23. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should develop and strengthen national centres for watershed management to

encourage a comprehensive approach to the environmental, socio-economic, technological,

legislative, financial and administrative aspects and provide support to policy makers, administrators,

field staff and farmers for watershed development.

13.24. The private sector and local communities, in cooperation with national Governments, should

promote local infrastructure development, including communication networks, mini- or micro-hydro

development to support cottage industries, and access to markets.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 14

PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

14.1. By the year 2025, 83 per cent of the expected global population of 8.5 billion will be living in

developing countries. Yet the capacity of available resources and technologies to satisfy the demands

of this growing population for food and other agricultural commodities remains uncertain.

Agriculture has to meet this challenge, mainly by increasing production on land already in use and by

avoiding further encroachment on land that is only marginally suitable for cultivation.

14.2. Major adjustments are needed in agricultural, environmental and macroeconomic policy, at both

national and international levels, in developed as well as developing countries, to create the

conditions for sustainable agriculture and rural development (SARD). The major objective of SARD

is to increase food production in a sustainable way and enhance food security. This will involve

education initiatives, utilization of economic incentives and the development of appropriate and new

technologies, thus ensuring stable supplies of nutritionally adequate food, access to those supplies by

vulnerable groups, and production for markets; employment and income generation to alleviate

poverty; and natural resource management and environmental protection.

14.3. The priority must be on maintaining and improving the capacity of the higher potential agricultural

lands to support an expanding population. However, conserving and rehabilitating the natural

resources on lower potential lands in order to maintain sustainable man/land ratios is also necessary.

The main tools of SARD are policy and agrarian reform, participation, income diversification, land

conservation and improved management of inputs. The success of SARD will depend largely on the

support and participation of rural people, national Governments, the private sector and international

cooperation, including technical and scientific cooperation.

14.4. The following programme areas are included in this chapter:

a. Agricultural policy review, planning and integrated programming in the light of the

multifunctional aspect of agriculture, particularly with regard to food security and

sustainable development;

b. Ensuring people’s participation and promoting human resource development for

sustainable agriculture;

c. Improving farm production and farming systems through diversification of farm and non- farm employment and infrastructure development;

d. Land-resource planning information and education for agriculture;

e. Land conservation and rehabilitation;

f. Water for sustainable food production and sustainable rural development;

g. Conservation and sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources for food and

sustainable agriculture;

h. Conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources for sustainable

agriculture;

i. Integrated pest management and control in agriculture;

j. Sustainable plant nutrition to increase food production;

k. Rural energy transition to enhance productivity;

l. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on plants and animals caused by the

depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.

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PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Agricultural policy re view, planning and integrated programmes in the light of the

multifunctional aspect of agriculture, particularly with regard to food security and sustainable

development

Basis for action

14.5. There is a need to integrate sustainable development considerations with agricultural policy analysis

and planning in all countries, particularly in developing countries. Recommendations should

contribute directly to development of realistic and operational medium- to long-term plans and

programmes, and thus to concrete actions. Support to and monitoring of implementation should

follow.

14.6. The absence of a coherent national policy framework for sustainable agriculture and rural

development (SARD) is widespread and is not limited to the developing countries. In particular t he

economies in transition from planned to market-oriented systems need such a framework to

incorporate environmental considerations into economic activities, including agriculture. All

countries need to assess comprehensively the impacts of such policies on food and agriculture sector

performance, food security, rural welfare and international trading relations as a means for

identifying appropriate offsetting measures. The major thrust of food security in this case is to bring

about a significant increase in agricultural production in a sustainable way and to achieve a

substantial improvement in people’s entitlement to adequate food and culturally appropriate food

supplies.

14.7. Sound policy decisions pertaining to international trade and capital flows also necessitate action to

overcome: (a) a lack of awareness of the environmental costs incurred by sectoral and

macroeconomic policies and hence their threat to sustainability; (b) insufficient skills and experience

in incorporating issues of sustainability into policies and programmes; and (c) inadequacy of tools of

analysis and monitoring. 1/

Objectives

14.8. The objectives of this Programme area are:

a. By 1995, to review and, where appropriate, establish a programme to integrate

environmental and sustainable development with policy analysis for the food and

agriculture sector and relevant macroeconomic policy analysis, formulation and

implementation;

b. To maintain and develop, as appropriate, operational multisectoral plans, programmes

and policy measures, including programmes and measures to enhance sustainable food

production and food security within the framework of sustainable development, not later

than 1998;

c. To maintain and enhance the ability of developing countries, particularly the least

developed ones, to themselves manage policy, programming and planning activities, not

later than 2005.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.9. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Carry out national policy reviews related to food security, including adequate levels and

stability of food supply and access to food by all households;

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b. Review national and regional agricultural policy in relation, inter alia, to foreign trade,

price policy, exchange rate policies, agricultural subsidies and taxes, as well as

organization for regional economic integration;

c. Implement policies to influence land tenure and property rights positively with due

recognition of the minimum size of land-holding required to maintain production and

check further fragmentation;

d. Consider demographic trends and population movements and identify critical areas for

agricultural production;

e. Formulate, introduce and monitor policies, laws and regulations and incentives leading to

sustainable agricultural and rural development and improved food security and to the

development and transfer of appropriate farm technologies, including, where appropriate,

low-input sustainable agricultural (LISA) systems;

f. Support national and regional early warning systems through food-security assistance

schemes that monitor food supply and demand and factors affecting household access to

food;

g. Review policies with respect to improving harvesting, storage, processing, distribution

and marketing of products at the local, national and regional levels;

h. Formulate and implement integrated agricultural projects that include other natural

resource activities, such as management of rangelands, forests, and wildlife, as

appropriate;

i. Promote social and economic research and policies that encourage sustainable agriculture

development, particularly in fragile ecosystems and densely populated areas;

j. Identify storage and distribution problems affecting food availability; support research,

where necessary, to overcome these problems and cooperate with producers and

distributors to implement improved practices and systems.

(b) Data and information

14.10. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Cooperate actively to expand and improve the information on early warning systems on

food and agriculture at both regional and national levels;

b. Examine and undertake surveys and research to establish baseline information on the

status of natural resources relating to food and agricultural production and planning in

order to assess the impacts of various uses on these resources, and develop methodologies

and tools of analysis, such as environmental accounting.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.11. United Nations agencies, such as FAO, the World Bank, IFAD and GATT, and regional

organizations, bilateral donor agencies and other bodies should, within their respective mandates,

assume a role in working with national Governments in the following activities:

a. Implement integrated and sustainable agricultural development and food security

strategies at the subregional level that use regional production and trade potentials,

including organizations for regional economic integration, to promote food security;

b. Encourage, in the context of achieving sustainable agricultural development and

consistent with relevant internationally agreed principles on trade and environment, a

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more open and non-discriminatory trading system and the avoidance of unjustifiable

trade barriers which together with other policies will facilitate the further integration of

agricultural and environmental policies so as to make them mutually supportive;

c. Strengthen and establish national, regional and international systems and networks to

increase the understanding of the interaction between agriculture and the state of the

environment, identify ecologically sound technologies and facilitate the exchange

information on data sources, policies, and techniques and tools of analysis.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.12. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) on

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $3 billion, including about $450 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.13. Governments at the appropriate level and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations should assist farming households and communities to apply technologies

related to improved food production and security, including storage, monitoring of production and

distribution.

(c) Human resource development

14.14. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Involve and train local economists, planners and analysts to initiate national and

international policy reviews and develop frameworks for sustainable agriculture;

b. Establish legal measures to promote access of women to land and remove biases in their

involvement in rural development.

(d) Capacity-building

14.15. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should strengthen ministries for agriculture, natural resources and planning.

B. Ensuring people’s participation and promoting human resource development for sustainable

agriculture

Basis for action

14.16. This component bridges policy and integrated resource management. The greater the degree of

community control over the resources on which it relies, the greater will be the incentive for

economic and human resources development. At the same time, policy instruments to reconcile long- run and short-run requirements must be set by national Governments. The approaches focus on

fostering self-reliance and cooperation, providing information and supporting user-based

organizations. Emphasis should be on management practices, building agreements for changes in

resource utilization, the rights and duties associated with use of land, water and forests, the

functioning of markets, prices, and the access to information, capital and inputs. This would require

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training and capacity-building to assume greater responsibilities in sustainable development efforts.

2/

Objectives

14.17. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To promote greater public awareness of the role of people’s participation and people’s

organizations, especially women’s groups, youth, indigenous people, local communities

and small farmers, in sustainable agriculture and rural development;

b. To ensure equitable access of rural people, particularly women, small farmers, landless

and indigenous people, to land, water and forest resources and to t echnologies, financing,

marketing, processing and distribution;

c. To strengthen and develop the management and the internal capacities of rural people’s

organizations and extension services and to decentralize decision-making to the lowest

community level.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop and improve integrated agricultural extension services and facilities and rural

organizations and undertake natural resource management and food security activities,

taking into account the different needs of subsistence agriculture as well as market- oriented crops;

b. Review and refocus existing measures to achieve wider access to land, water and forest

resources and ensure equal rights of women and other disadvantaged groups, with

particular emphasis on rural populations, indigenous people and local communities;

c. Assign clear titles, rights and responsibilities for land and for individuals or communities

to encourage investment in land resources;

d. Develop guidelines for decentralization policies for rural development through

reorganization and strengthening of rural institutions;

e. Develop policies in extension, training, pricing, input distribution, credit and taxation to

ensure necessary incentives and equitable access by the poor to production-support

services;

f. Provide support services and training, recognizing the variation in agricultural

circumstances and practices by location; the optimal use of on-farm inputs and the

minimal use of external inputs; optimal use of local natural resources and management of

renewable energy sources; and the establishment of networks that deal with the exchange

of information on alternative forms of agriculture.

(b) Data and information

14.19. Governments at the appropriate level, and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations, should collect, analyse, and disseminate information on human resources, the

role of Governments, local communities and non-governmental organizations in social innovation

and strategies for rural development.

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(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.20. Appropriate international and regional agencies should:

a. Reinforce their work with non-governmental organizations in collecting and

disseminating information on people’s participation and people’s organizations, testing

participatory development methods, training and education for human resource

development and strengthening the management structures of rural organizations;

b. Help develop information available through non-governmental organizations and

promote an international ecological agricultural network to accelerate the development

and implementation of ecological agriculture practices.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.21. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $4.4 billion, including about $650 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.22. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Encourage people’s participation on farm technology development and transfer,

incorporating indigenous ecological knowledge and practices;

b. Launch applied research on participatory methodologies, management strategies and

local organizations.

(c) Human resource development

14.23. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should provide management and technical training to government administrators and

members of resource-user groups in the principles, practice and benefits of people’s participation in

rural development.

(d) Capacity-building

14.24. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should introduce management strategies and mechanisms, such as accounting and

audit services for rural people’s organizations and institutions for human resource development, and

delegate administrative and financial responsibilities to local levels for decision-making, revenue- raising and expenditure.

C. Improving farm production and farming systems through diversification of farm and non-farm

employment and infrastructure development

Basis for action

14.25. Agriculture needs to be intensified to meet future demands for commodities and to avoid further

expansion onto marginal lands and encroachment on fragile ecosystems. Increased use of external

inputs and development of specialized production and farming systems tend to increase vulnerability

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to environmental stresses and market fluctuations. There is, therefore, a need to intensify agriculture

by diversifying the production systems for maximum efficiency in the utilization of local resources,

while minimizing environmental and economic risks. Where intensification of farming systems is not

possible, other on-farm and off-farm employment opportunities should be identified and developed,

such as cottage industries, wildlife utilization, aquaculture and fisheries, non-farm activities, such as

light village-based manufacturing, farm commodity processing, agribusiness, recreation and tourism,

etc.

Objectives

14.26. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To improve farm productivity in a sustainable manner, as well as to increase

diversification, efficiency, food security and rural incomes, while ensuring that risks to

the ecosystem are minimized;

b. To enhance the self-reliance of farmers in developing and improving rural infrastructure,

and to facilitate the transfer of environmentally sound technologies for integrated

production and farming systems, including indigenous technologies and the sustainable

use of biological and ecological processes, including agroforestry, sustainable wildlife

conservation and management, aquaculture, inland fisheries and animal husbandry;

c. To create farm and non-farm employment opportunities, particularly among the poor and

those living in marginal areas, taking into account the alternative livelihood proposal

inter alia in dryland areas.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.27. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop and disseminate to farming households integrated farm management

technologies, such as crop rotation, organic manuring and other techniques involving

reduced use of agricultural chemicals, multiple techniques for sources of nutrients and the

efficient utilization of external inputs, while enhancing techniques for waste and by- product utilization and prevention of pre- and post-harvest losses, taking particular note

of the role of women;

b. Create non-farm employment opportunities through private small-scale agro-processing

units, rural service centres and related infrastructural improvements;

c. Promote and improve rural financial networks that utilize investment capital resources

raised locally;

d. Provide the essential rural infrastructure for access to agricultural inputs and services, as

well as to national and local markets, and reduce food losses;

e. Initiate and maintain farm surveys, on-farm testing of appropriate technologies and

dialogue with rural communities to identify constraints and bottlenecks and find

solutions;

f. Analyse and identify possibilities for economic integration of agricultural and forestry

activities, as well as water and fisheries, and to take effective measures to encourage

forest management and growing of trees by farmers (farm forestry) as an option for

resource development.

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(b) Data and information

14.28. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Analyse the effects of technical innovations and incentives on farm-household income

and well-being;

b. Initiate and maintain on-farm and off-farm programmes to collect and record indigenous

knowledge.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.29 International institutions, such as FAO and IFAD, international agricultural research centres, such as

CGIAR, and regional centres should diagnose the world’s major agro-ecosystems, their extension,

ecological and socio-economic characteristics, their susceptibility to deterioration and their

productive potential. This could form the basis for technology development and exchange and for

regional research collaboration.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.29. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $10 billion, including about $1.5 billion

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.30. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should strengthen research on agricultural production systems in areas with different

endowments and agro-ecological zones, including comparative analysis of the intensification,

diversification and different levels of external and internal inputs.

(c) Human resource development

14.31. Governments at t he appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Promote educational and vocational training for farmers and rural communities through

formal and non-formal education;

b. Launch awareness and training programmes for entrepreneurs, managers, bankers and

traders in rural servicing and small-scale agro-processing techniques.

(d) Capacity-building

14.32. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Improve their organizational capacity to deal with issues related to off-farm activities and

rural industry development;

b. Expand credit facilities and rural infrastructure related to processing, transportation and

marketing.

D. Land-resource planning, information and education for agriculture

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Basis for action

14.33. Inappropriate and uncontrolled land uses are a major cause of degradation and depletion of land

resources. Present land use often disregards the actual potentials, carrying capacities and limitations

of land resources, as well as their diversity in space. It is estimated that the world’s population, now

at 5.4 billion, will be 6.25 billion by the turn of the century. The need to increase food production to

meet the expanding needs of the population will put enormous pressure on all natural resources,

including land.

14.34. Poverty and malnutrition are already endemic in many regions. The destruction and degradation of

agricultural and environmental resources is a major issue. Techniques for increasing production and

conserving soil and water resources are already available but are not widely or systematically

applied. A systematic approach is needed for identifying land uses and production systems that are

sustainable in each land and climat e zone, including the economic, social and institutional

mechanisms necessary for their implementation. 3/

Objectives

14.35. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To harmonize planning procedures, involve farmers in the planning process, collect land- resource data, design and establish databases, define land areas of similar capability,

identify resource problems and values that need to be taken into account to establish

mechanisms to encourage efficient and environmentally sound use of resources;

b. To establish agricultural planning bodies at national and local levels to decide priorities,

channel resources and implement programmes.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.36. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant int ernational and regional

organizations, should:

a. Establish and strengthen agricultural land-use and land-resource planning, management,

education and information at national and local levels;

b. Initiate and maintain district and village agricultural land-resource planning, management

and conservation groups to assist in problem identification, development of technical and

management solutions, and project implementation.

(b) Data and information

14.37. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Collect, continuously monitor, update and disseminate information, whenever possible,

on the utilization of natural resources and living conditions, climate, water and soil

factors, and on land use, distribution of vegetation cover and animal species, utilization of

wild plants, production systems and yields, costs and prices, and social and cultural

considerations that affect agricultural and adjacent land use;

b. Establish programmes to provide information, promote discussion and encourage the

formation of management groups.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.38. The appropriate United Nations agencies and regional organizations should:

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a. Strengthen or establish international, regional and subregional technical working groups

with specific terms of reference and budgets to promote the integrated use of land

resources for agriculture, planning, data collection and diffusion of simulation models of

production and information dissemination;

b. Develop internationally acceptable methodologies for the establishment of databases,

description of land uses and multiple goal optimization.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.39. The Conference secretariat has estimat ed the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $1.7 billion, including about $250 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.40. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop databases and geographical information systems to store and display physical,

social and economic information pertaining to agriculture, and the definition of

ecological zones and development areas;

b. Select combinations of land uses and production systems appropriate to land units

through multiple goal optimization procedures, and strengthen delivery systems and local

community participation;

c. Encourage integrated planning at the watershed and landscape level to reduce soil loss

and protect surface and groundwater resources from chemical pollution.

(c) Human resource development

14.41. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Train professionals and planning groups at national, district and village levels through

formal and informal instructional courses, travel and interaction;

b. Generate discussion at all levels on policy, development and environmental issues related

to agricultural land use and management, through media programmes, conferences and

seminars.

(d) Capacity-building

14.42. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Establish land-resource mapping and planning units at national, district and village levels

to act as focal points and links between institutions and disciplines, and between

Governments and people;

b. Establish or strengthen Governments and international institutions with responsibility for

agricultural resource survey, management and development; rationalize and strengthen

legal frameworks; and provide equipment and technical assistance.

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E. Land conservation and rehabilitation

Basis for action

14.43. Land degradation is the most important environmental problem affecting extensive areas of land in

both developed and developing countries. The problem of soil erosion is particularly acute in

developing countries, while problems of salinization, waterlogging, soil pollution and loss of soil

fertility are increasing in all countries. Land degradation is serious because the productivity of huge

areas of land is declining just when populations are increasing rapidly and the demand on the land is

growing to produce more food, fibre and fuel. Efforts to control land degradation, particularly in

developing countries, have had limited success to date. Well planned, long-term national and regional

land conservation and rehabilitation programmes, with strong political support and adequate funding,

are now needed. While land-use planning and land zoning, combined with better land management,

should provide long-term solutions, it is urgent to arrest land degradation and launch conservation

and rehabilitation programmes in the most critically affected and vulnerable areas.

Objectives

14.44. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. By the year 2000, to review and initiate, as appropriate, national land-resource surveys,

detailing the location, extent and severity of land degradation;

b. To prepare and implement comprehensive policies and programmes leading to the

reclamation of degraded lands and the conservation of areas at risk, as well as improve

the general planning, management and utilization of land resources and preserve soil

fertility for sustainable agricultural development.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.45. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop and implement programmes to remove and resolve the physical, social and

economic causes of land degradation, such as land tenure, appropriate trading systems

and agricultural pricing structures, which lead to inappropriate land-use management;

b. Provide incentives and, where appropriate and possible, resources for the participation of

local communities in the planning, implementation and maintenance of their own

conservation and reclamation programmes;

c. Develop and implement programmes for the rehabilitation of land degraded by water- logging and salinity;

d. Develop and implement programmes for the progressive use of non-cultivated land with

agricultural potential in a sustainable way.

(b) Data and information

14.46. Governments, at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Conduct periodic surveys to assess the extent and state of its land resources;

b. Strengthen and establish national land-resource data banks, including identification of the

location, extent and severity of existing land degradation, as well as areas at risk, and

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evaluate the progress of the conservation and rehabilitation programmes launched in this

regard;

c. Collect and record information on indigenous conservation and rehabilitation practices

and farming systems as a basis for research and extension programmes.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.47. The appropriate United Nations agencies, regional organizations and non-governmental

organizations should:

a. Develop priority conservation and rehabilitation programmes with advisory services to

Governments and regional organizations;

b. Establish regional and subregional networks for scientists and technicians to exchange

experiences, develop joint programmes and spread successful technologies on land

conservation and rehabilitation.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.48. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $5 billion, including about $800 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.49. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should help farming household communities to investigate and promote site-specific

technologies and farming systems that conserve and rehabilitate land, while increasing agricultural

production, including conservation tillage agroforestry, terracing and mixed cropping.

(c) Human resource development

14.50. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should train field staff and land users in indigenous and modern techniques of

conservation and rehabilitation and should establish training facilities for extension staff and land

users.

(d) Capacity-building

14.51. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop and strengthen national research institutional capacity to identify and implement

effective conservation and rehabilitation practices that are appropriate to the existing

socio-economic physical conditions of the land users;

b. Coordinate all land conservation and rehabilitation policies, strategies and programmes

with related ongoing programmes, such as national environment action plans, the

Tropical Forestry Action Plan and national development programmes.

F. Water for sustainable food production and sustainable rural development

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14.52. This programme area is included in chapter 18 (Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater

resources), programme area F.

G. Conservation and sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources for food and sustainable

agriculture

Basis for action

14.53. Plant genetic resources for agriculture (PGRFA) are an essential resource to meet future needs for

food. Threats t o the security of these resources are growing, and efforts to conserve, develop and use

genetic diversity are underfunded and understaffed. Many existing gene banks provide inadequate

security and, in some instances, the loss of plant genetic diversity in gene banks is as great as it is in

the field.

14.54. The primary objective is to safeguard the world’s genetic resources while preserving them to use

sustainably. This includes the development of measures to facilitate the conservation and use of plant

genetic resources, networks of in situ conservation areas and use of tools such as ex situ collections

and germ plasma banks. Special emphasis could be placed on the building of endogenous capacity

for characterization, evaluation and utilization of PGRFA, particularly for the minor crops and other

underutilized or non-utilized species of food and agriculture, including tree species for agro-forestry.

Subsequent action could be aimed at consolidation and efficient management of networks of in situ

conservation areas and use of tools such as ex situ collections and germ plasma banks.

14.55. Major gaps and weaknesses exist in the capacity of existing national and international mechanisms

to assess, study, monitor and use plant genetic resources to increase food production. Existing

institutional capacity, structures and programmes are generally inadequate and largely underfunded.

There is genetic erosion of invaluable crop species. Existing diversity in crop species is not used to

the extent possible for increased food production in a sustainable way. 4/

Objectives

14.56. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To complete the first regeneration and safe duplication of existing ex situ collections on a

world-wide basis as soon as possible;

b. To collect and study plants useful for increasing food production through joint activities,

including training, within the framework of networks of collaborating institutions;

c. Not later than the year 2000, to adopt policies and strengthen or establish programmes for

in situ on-farm and ex situ conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for

food and agriculture, integrated into strategies and programmes for sustainable

agriculture;

d. To take appropriate measures for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits and results of

research and development in plant breeding between the sources and users of plant

genetic resources.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.57. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organiz ations, should:

a. Develop and strengthen institutional capacity, structures and programmes for

conservation and use of PGRFA;

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b. Strengthen and establish research in the public domain on PGRFA evaluation and

utilization, with the objectives of sustainable agriculture and rural development in view;

c. Develop multiplication/propagation, exchange and dissemination facilities for PGRFAs

(seeds and planting materials), particularly in developing countries and monitor, control

and evaluate plant introductions;

d. Prepare plans or programmes of priority action on conservation and sustainable use of

PGRFA, based, as appropriate, on country studies on PGRFA;

e. Promote crop diversification in agricultural systems where appropriate, including new

plants with potential value as food crops;

f. Promote utilization as well as research on poorly known, but potentially useful, plants

and crops, where appropriate;

g. Strengthen national capabilities for utilization of PGRFA, plant breeding and seed

production capabilities, both by specialized institutions and farming communities.

(b) Data and information

14.58. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop strategies for networks of in situ conservation areas and use of tools such as on- farm ex situ collections, germplasm banks and related technologies;

b. Establish ex situ base collection networks;

c. Review periodically and report on the situation on PGRFA, using existing systems and

procedures;

d. Characterize and evaluate PGRFA material collected, disseminate information to

facilitate the use of PGRFA collections and assess genetic variation in collections.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.59. The appropriate United Nations agencies and regional organizations should:

a. Strengthen the Global System on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of PGRFA by,

inter alia, accelerating the development of the Global Information and Early Warning

System to facilitate the exchange of information; developing ways to promote the transfer

of environmentally sound technologies, in particular to developing countries; and taking

further steps to realize farmers’ rights;

b. Develop subregional, regional and global networks of PGRFA in situ in protected areas;

c. Prepare periodic state of the world reports on PGRFA;

d. Prepare a rolling global cooperative plan of action on PGRFA;

e. Promote, for 1994, the Fourth International Technical Conference on the Conservation

and Sustainable Use of PGRFA, which is to adopt the first state of the world report and

the first global plan of action on the conservation and sustainable use of PGRFA;

f. Adjust the Global System for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of PGRFA in line

with the outcome of the negotiations of a convention on biological diversity.

Means of implementation

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(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.60. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $600 million, including about $300

million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and

order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and

financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific

strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.61. Governments, at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop basic science research in such areas as plant taxonomy and phytogeography,

utilizing recent developments, such as computer sciences, molecular genetics and in vitro

cryopreservation;

b. Develop major collaborative projects between research programmes in developed and

developing countries, particularly for the enhancement of poorly known or neglected

crops;

c. Promote cost-effective technologies for keeping duplicate sets of ex situ collections

(which can also be used by local communities);

d. Develop further conservation sciences in relation to in situ conservation and technical

means to link it with ex situ conservation efforts.

(c) Human resource development

14.62. Governments at the appropriate level and with the support of the relevant international and

regional organizations should:

a. Promote training programmes at both undergraduate and post-graduate levels in

conservation sciences for running PGRFA facilities and for the design and

implementation of national programmes in PGRFA;

b. Raise the awareness of agricultural extension services in order to link PGRFA activities

with user communities;

c. Develop training materials to promote conservation and utilization of PGRFA at the local

level.

(d) Capacity-building

14.63. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should establish national policies to provide legal status for and strengthen legal

aspects of PGRFA, including long-term financial commitments for germplasm collections and

implementation of activities in PGRFA.

H. Conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources for sustainable agriculture

Basis for action

14.64. The need for increased quantity and quality of animal products and for draught animals calls for

conservation of the existing diversity of animal breeds to meet future requirements, including those

for use in biotechnology. Some local animal breeds, in addition to their socio-cultural value, have

unique attributes for adaptation, disease resistance and specific uses and should be preserved. These

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local breeds are threatened by extinction as a result of the introduction of exotic breeds and of

changes in livestock production systems.

Objectives

14.65. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. To enumerate and describe all breeds of livestock used in animal agriculture in as broad a

way as possible and begin a 10-year programme of action;

b. To establish and implement action programmes to identify breeds at risk, together with

the nature of the risk and appropriate preservation measures;

c. To establish and implement development programmes for indigenous breeds in order to

guarantee their survival, avoiding the risk of their being replaced by breed substitution or

cross-breeding programmes.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.66. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Draw up breed preservation plans, for endangered populations, including semen/embryo

collection and storage, farm-based conservation of indigenous stock or in situ

preservation;

b. Plan and initiate breed development strategies;

c. Select indigenous populations on the basis of regional importance and genetic

uniqueness, for a 10-year programme, followed by selection of an additional cohort of

indigenous breeds for development.

(b) Data and information

14.67. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should prepare and complete national inventories of available animal genetic

resources. Cryogenic storage could be given priority over characterization and evaluation. Training

of nationals in conservation and assessment techniques would be given special attention.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.68. The appropriate United Nations and other international and regional agencies should:

a. Promote the establishment of regional gene banks to the extent that they are justified,

based on principles of technical cooperation among developing countries;

b. Process, store and analyse animal genetic data at the global level, including the

establishment of a world watch list and an early warning system for endangered breeds;

global assessment of scientific and intergovernmental guidance of the programme and

review of regional and national activities; development of methodologies, norms and

standards (including international agreements); monitoring of their implementation; and

related technical and financial assistance;

c. Prepare and publish a comprehensive database of animal genetic resources, describing

each breed, its derivation, its relationship with other breeds, effective population size and

a concise set of biological and production characteristics;

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d. Prepare and publish a world watch list on farm animal species at risk to enable national

Governments to take action to preserve endangered breeds and to seek technical

assistance, where necessary.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.69. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $200 million, including about $100

million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and

order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and

financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific

strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.70. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Use computer-based data banks and questionnaires to prepare a global inventory/world

watch list;

b. Using cryogenic storage of germplasm, preserve breeds at serious risk and other material

from which genes can be reconstructed.

(c) Human resource development

14.71. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Sponsor training courses for nationals to obtain the necessary expertise for data collection

and handling and for the sampling of genetic material;

b. Enable scientists and managers to establish an information base for indigenous livestock

breeds and promote programmes to develop and conserve essential livestock genetic

material.

(d) Capacity-building

14.72. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Establish in-country facilities for artificial insemination centres and in situ breeding

farms;

b. Promote in-country programmes and related physical infrastructure for animal livestock

conservation and breed development, as well as for strengthening national capacities to

take preventive action when breeds are endangered.

I. Integrated pest management and control in agriculture

Basis for action

14.73. World food demand projections indicate an increase of 50 per cent by the year 2000 which will

more than double again by 2050. Conservative estimates put pre-harvest and post-harvest losses

caused by pests between 25 and 50 per cent. Pests affecting animal health also cause heavy losses

and in many areas prevent livestock development. Chemical control of agricultural pests has

dominated the scene, but its overuse has adverse effects on farm budgets, human health and the

environment, as well as on international trade. New pest problems continue to develop. Integrated

pest management, which combines biological control, host plant resistance and appropriate farming

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practices and minimizes the use of pesticides, is the best option for the future, as it guarantees yields,

reduces costs, is environmentally friendly and contributes to the sustainability of agriculture.

Integrated pest management should go hand in hand with appropriate pesticide management to allow

for pesticide regulation and control, including trade, and for the safe handling and disposal of

pesticides, particularly those that are toxic and persistent.

Objectives

14.74. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. Not later than the year 2000, to improve and implement plant protection and animal

health services, including mechanisms to control the distribution and use of pesticides,

and to implement the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of

Pesticides;

b. To improve and implement programmes to put integrated pest-management practices

within the reach of farmers through farmer networks, extension services and research

institutions;

c. Not later than the year 1998, to establish operational and interactive networks among

farmers, researchers and extension services to promote and develop integrated pest

management.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.75. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Review and reform national policies and the mechanisms that would ensure the safe and

appropriate use of pesticides – for example, pesticide pricing, pest control brigades, price- structure of inputs and outputs and integrated pest-management policies and action plans;

b. Develop and adopt efficient management systems to control and monitor the incidence of

pests and disease in agriculture and the distribution and use of pesticides at the country

level;

c. Encourage research and development into pesticides that are target-specific and readily

degrade into harmless constituent parts after use;

d. Ensure that pesticide labels provide farmers with understandable information about safe

handling, application and disposal.

(b) Data and information

14.76. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Consolidate and harmonize existing information and programmes on the use of pesticides

that have been banned or severely restricted in different countries;

b. Consolidate, document and disseminate information on biological control agents and

organic pesticides, as well as on traditional and other relevant knowledge and skills

regarding alternative non-chemical ways of controlling pests;

c. Undertake national surveys to establish baseline information on the use of pesticides in

each country and the side-effects on human health and environment, and also undertake

appropriate education.

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(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.77. Appropriate United Nations agencies and regional organizations should:

a. Establish a system for collecting, analysing and disseminating data on the quantity and

quality of pesticides used every year and their impact on human health and the

environment;

b. Strengthen regional interdisciplinary projects and establish integrated pest management

(IPM) networks to demonstrate the social, economic and environmental benefits of IPM

for food and cash crops in agriculture;

c. Develop proper IPM, comprising the selection of the variety of biological, physical and

cultural controls, as well as chemical controls, taking into account specific regional

conditions.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.78. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $1.9 billion, including about $285 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.79. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should launch on-farm research in the development of non-chemical alternative pest

management technologies.

(c) Human resource development

14.80. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Prepare and conduct training programmes on approaches and techniques for integrated

pest management and control of pesticide use, to inform policy makers, researchers, non- governmental organizations and farmers;

b. Train extension agents and involve farmers and women’s groups in crop health and

alternative non-chemical ways of controlling pests in agriculture.

(d) Capacity-building

14.81. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should strengthen national public administrations and regulatory bodies in the control

of pesticides and the transfer of technology for integrated pest management.

J. Sustainable plant nutrition to increase food production

Basis for action

14.82. Plant nutrient depletion is a serious problem resulting in loss of soil fertility, particularly in

developing countries. To maintain soil productivity, the FAO sustainable plant nutrition programmes

could be helpful. In sub-Saharan Africa, nutrient output from all sources currently exceeds inputs by

a factor of three or four, the net loss being estimated at some 10 million metric tons per year. As a

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result, more marginal lands and fragile natural ecosystems are put under agricultural use, thus

creating further land degradation and other environmental problems. The int egrated plant nutrition

approach aims at ensuring a sustainable supply of plant nutrients to increase future yields without

harming the environment and soil productivity.

14.83. In many developing countries, population growth rates exceed 3 per cent a year, and national

agricultural production has fallen behind food demand. In these countries the goal should be to

increase agricultural production by at least 4 per cent a year, without destroying the soil fertility. This

will require increasing agricultural production in high-potential areas through efficiency in the use of

inputs. Trained labour, energy supply, adapted tools and technologies, plant nutrients and soil

enrichment will all be essential.

Objectives

14.84. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. Not later than the year 2000, to develop and maintain in all countries the integrated plant

nutrition approach, and to optimize availability of fertilizer and other plant nutrient

sources;

b. Not later than the year 2000, to establish and maintain institutional and human

infrastructure to enhance effective decision-making on soil productivity;

c. To develop and make available national and international know-how to farmers,

extension agents, planners and policy makers on environmentally sound new and existing

technologies and soil-fertility management strategies for application in promoting

sustainable agriculture.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.85. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Formulate and apply strategies that will enhance soil fertility maintenance to meet

sustainable agricultural production and adjust the relevant agricultural policy instruments

accordingly;

b. Integrate organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients in a system to sustain soil

fertility and determine mineral fertilizer needs;

c. Determine plant nutrient requirements and supply strategies and optimize the use of both

organic and inorganic sources, as appropriate, to increase farming efficiency and

production;

d. Develop and encourage processes for the recycling of organic and inorganic waste into

the soil structure, without harming the environment, plant growth and human health.

(b) Data and information

14.86. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Assess “national accounts” for plant nutrients, including supplies (inputs) and losses

(outputs) and prepare balance sheets and projections by cropping systems;

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b. Review technical and economic potentials of plant nutrient sources, including national

deposits, improved organic supplies, recycling, wastes, topsoil produced from discarded

organic matter and biological nitrogen fixation.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

14.87. The appropriate United Nations agencies, such as FAO, the international agricultural research

institutes, and non-governmental organizations should collaborate in carrying out information and

publicity campaigns about the integrated plant nutrients approach, efficiency of soil productivity and

their relationship to the environment.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.88. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implement ing the activities of this programme to be about $3.2 billion, including about $475 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.89. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop site-specific technologies at benchmark sites and farmers’ fields that fit

prevailing socio-economic and ecological conditions through research that involves the

full collaboration of local populations;

b. Reinforce interdisciplinary international research and transfer of technology in cropping

and farming systems research, improved in situ biomass production techniques, organic

residue management and agroforestry technologies.

(c) Human resource development

14.90. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Train extension officers and researchers in plant nutrient management, cropping systems

and farming systems, and in economic evaluation of plant nutrient impact;

b. Train farmers and women’s groups in plant nutrition management, with special emphasis

on topsoil conservation and production.

(d) Capacity-building

14.91. Governments at t he appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop suitable institutional mechanisms for policy formulation to monitor and guide

the implementation of integrated plant nutrition programmes through an interactive

process involving farmers, research, extension services and other sectors of society;

b. Where appropriate, strengthen existing advisory services and train staff, develop and test

new technologies and facilitate the adoption of practices to upgrade and maintain full

productivity of the land.

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K. Rural energy transition to enhance productivity

Basis for action

14.92. Energy supplies in many countries are not commensurate with their development needs and are

highly priced and unstable. In rural areas of the developing countries, the chief sources of energy are

fuelwood, crop residues and manure, together with animal and human energy. More intensive energy

inputs are required for increased productivity of human labour and for income-generation. To this

end, rural energy policies and technologies should promote a mix of cost-effective fossil and

renewable energy sources that is itself sustainable and ensures sustainable agricultural development.

Rural areas provide energy supplies in the form of wood. The full potential of agriculture and

agroforestry, as well as common property resources, as sources of renewable energy, is far from

being realized. The attainment of sustainable rural development is intimately linked with energy

demand and supply patterns. 5/

Objectives

14.93. The objectives of this programme area are:

a. Not later than the year 2000, to initiate and encourage a process of environmentally

sound energy transition in rural communities, from unsustainable energy sources, to

structured and diversified energy sources by making available alternative new and

renewable sources of energy;

b. To increase the energy inputs available for rural household and agro-industrial needs

through planning and appropriate technology transfer and development;

c. To imp lement self-reliant rural programmes favouring sustainable development of

renewable energy sources and improved energy efficiency.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

14.94. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Promote pilot plans and projects consisting of electrical, mechanical and thermal power

(gasifiers, biomass, solar driers, wind-pumps and combustion systems) that are

appropriate and likely to be adequately maintained;

b. Initiate and promote rural energy programmes supported by technical training, banking

and related infrastructure;

c. Intensify research and the development, diversification and conservation of energy,

taking into account the need for efficient use and environmentally sound technology.

(b) Data and information

14.95. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Collect and disseminate data on rural energy supply and demand patterns related to

energy needs for households, agriculture and agro-industry;

b. Analyse sectoral energy and production data in order to identify rural energy

requirements.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

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14.96. The appropriate United Nations agencies and regional organizations should, drawing on the

experience and available information of non-governmental organizations in this field, exchange

country and regional experience on rural energy planning methodologies in order to promote efficient

planning and select cost-effective technologies.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

14.97. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $1.8 billion per year, including about $265

million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and

order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and

financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific

strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

14.98. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Intensify public and private sector research in developing and industrialized countries on

renewable sources of energy for agriculture;

b. Undertake research and transfer of energy technologies in biomass and solar energy to

agricultural production and post-harvest activities.

(c) Human resource development

14.99. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should enhance public awareness of rural energy problems, stressing the economic and

environmental advantages of renewable energy sources.

(d) Capacity-building

14.100. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Establish national institutional mechanisms for rural energy planning and management that would

improve efficiency in agricultural productivity and reach the village and household level;

b. Strengthen extension services and local organizations to implement plans and programmes for

new and renewable sources of energy at the village level.

L. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on plants and animals caused by the depletion of

the stratospheric ozone layer

Basis for action

14.101. The increase of ultraviolet radiation as a consequence of the depletion of the stratospheric ozone

layer is a phenomenon that has been recorded in different regions of the world, particularly in the

southern hemisphere. Consequently, it is important to evaluate its effects on plant and animal life, as

well as on sustainable agricultural development.

Objective

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14.102. The objective of this programme area is to undertake research to determine the effects of increased

ultraviolet radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone layer depletion on the Earth’s surface, and on

plant and animal life in affected regions, as well as its impact on agriculture, and to develop, as

appropriate, strategies aimed at mitigating its adverse effects.

Activities

Management-related activities

14.103. In affected regions, Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant

international and regional organizations, should take the necessary measures, through institutional

cooperation, to facilitate the implementation of research and evaluation regarding the effects of

enhanced ultraviolet radiation on plant and animal life, as well as on agricultural activities, and

consider taking appropriate remedial measures.

Notes

1/ Some of the issues in this programme area are presented in chapter 3 of Agenda 21 (Combating poverty).

2/ Some of the issues in this programme area are discussed in chapter 8 of Agenda 21 (Integrating

environment and development in decision-making) and in chapter 37 (National mechanisms and

international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries).

3/ Some of the issues are presented in chapter 10 of Agenda 21 (Integrated approach to the planning and

management of land resources).

4/ The activities of this programme area are related to some of the activities in chapter 15 of Agenda 21

(Conservation of biological diversity).

5/ The activities of this programme area are related to some of the activities in chapter 9 of Agenda 21

(Protection of the atmosphere).

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 15

CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

15.1. The objectives and activities in this chapter of Agenda 21 are intended to improve the conservation of

biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources, as well as to support the Convention on

Biological Diversity.

15.2. Our planet’s essential goods and services depend on the variety and variability of genes, species,

populations and ecosystems. Biological resources feed and clothe us and provide housing, medicines and

spiritual nourishment. The natural ecosystems of forests, savannahs, pastures and rangelands, deserts,

tundras, rivers, lakes and seas contain most of the Earth’s biodiversity. Farmers’ fields and gardens are also

of great importance as repositories, while gene banks, botanical gardens, zoos and other germplasm

repositories make a small but significant contribution. The current decline in biodiversity is largely the

result of human activity and represents a serious threat to human development.

PROGRAMME AREA

Conservation of biological diversity

Basis for action

15.3. Despite mounting efforts over the past 20 years, the loss of the world’s biological diversity, mainly

from habitat destruction, over-harvesting, pollution and the inappropriate introduction of foreign plants and

animals, has continued. Biological resources constitute a capital asset with great potential for yielding

sustainable benefits. Urgent and decisive action is needed to conserve and maintain genes, species and

ecosystems, with a view to the sustainable management and use of biological resources. Capacities for the

assessment, study and systematic observation and evaluation of biodiversity need to be reinforced at

national and international levels. Effective national action and international cooperation is required for the

in situ protection of ecosystems, for the ex situ conservation of biological and genetic resources and for the

enhancement of ecosystem functions. The participation and support of local communities are elements

essential to the success of such an approach. Recent advances in biotechnology have pointed up the likely

potential for agriculture, health and welfare and for the environmental purposes of the genetic material

contained in plants, animals and micro-organisms. At the same time, it is particularly important in this

context to stress that States have the sovereign right to exploit their own biological resources pursuant to

their environmental policies, as well as the responsibility to conserve their biodiversity and use their

biological resources sustainably, and to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not

cause damage to the biological diversity of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national

jurisdiction.

Objectives

15.4. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and

regional, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the private sector and financial

institutions, and taking into consideration indigenous people and their communities, as well as social and

economic factors, should:

a. Press for the early entry into force of the Convention on Biological Diversity, with the widest

possible participation;

b. Develop national strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of

biological resources;

c. Integrate strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of

biological resources into national development strategies and/or plans;

d. Take appropriate measures for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from research and

development and use of biological and genetic resources, including biotechnology, between the

sources of those resources and those who use them;

e. Carry out country studies, as appropriate, on the conservation of biological diversity and the

sustainable use of biological resources, including analyses of relevant costs and benefits, with

particular reference to socio-economic aspects;

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f. Produce regularly updated world reports on biodiversity based upon national assessments;

g. Recognize and foster the traditional methods and the knowledge of indigenous people and their

communities, emphasizing the particular role of women, relevant to the conservation of biological

diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources, and ensure the opportunity for the

participation of those groups in the economic and commercial benefits derived from the use of

such traditional methods and knowledge; 1/

h. Implement mechanisms for the improvement, generation, development and sustainable use of

biotechnology and its safe transfer, particularly to developing countries, taking account the

potential contribution of biotechnology to the conservation of biological diversity and the

sustainable use of biological resources; 2/

i. Promote broader international and regional cooperation in furthering scientific and economic

understanding of the importance of biodiversity and its functions in ecosystems;

j. Develop measures and arrangements to implement the rights of countries of origin of genetic

resources or countries providing genetic resources, as defined in the Convention on Biological

Diversity, particularly developing countries, to benefit from the biotechnological development and

the commercial utilization of products derived from such resources. 2/ 3/

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

15.5. Governments at the appropriate levels, consistent with national policies and practices, with the

cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental organizations and,

with the support of indigenous people and their communities, non-governmental organizations and other

groups, including the business and scientific communities, and consistent with the requirements of

international law, should, as appropriate:

a. Develop new or strengthen existing strategies, plans or programmes of action for the conservation

of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources, taking account of education

and training needs; 4/

b. Integrate strategies for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of

biological and genetic resources into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and

policies, with particular reference to the special importance of terrestrial and aquatic biological

and genetic resources for food and agriculture; 5/

c. Undertake country studies or use other methods to identify components of biological diversity

important for its conservation and for the sustainable use of biological resources, ascribe values to

biological and genetic resources, identify processes and activities with significant impacts upon

biological diversity, evaluate the potential economic implications of the conservation of biological

diversity and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources, and suggest priority action;

d. Take effective economic, social and other appropriate incentive measures to encourage the

conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources, including the

promotion of sustainable production systems, such as traditional methods of agriculture,

agroforestry, forestry, range and wildlife management, which use, maintain or increase

biodiversity; 5/

e. Subject to national legislation, take action to respect, record, protect and promote the wider

application of the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities

embodying traditional lifestyles for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use

of biological resources, with a view to the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising, and

promote mechanisms to involve those communities, including women, in the conservation and

management of ecosystems; 1/

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f. Undertake long-term research into the importance of biodiversity for the functioning of

ecosystems and the role of ecosystems in producing goods, environmental services and other

values supporting sustainable development, with particular reference to the biology and

reproductive capacities of key terrestrial and aquatic species, including native, cultivated and

cultured species; new observation and inventory techniques; ecological conditions necessary for

biodiversity conservation and continued evolution; and social behaviour and nutrition habits

dependent on natural ecosystems, where women play key roles. The work should be undertaken

with the widest possible participation, especially of indigenous people and their communities,

including women; 1/

g. Take action where necessary for the conservation of biological diversity through the in situ

conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats, as well as primitive cultivars and their wild

relatives, and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural

surroundings, and implement ex situ measures, preferably in the source country. In situ measures

should include the reinforcement of terrestrial, marine and aquatic protected area systems and

embrace, inter alia, vulnerable freshwater and other wetlands and coastal ecosystems, such as

estuaries, coral reefs and mangroves; 6/

h. Promote the rehabilitation and restoration of damaged ecosystems and the recovery of threatened

and endangered species;

i. Develop policies to encourage the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable use of

biological and genetic resources on private lands;

j. Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas

with a view to furthering protection of these areas;

k. Introduce appropriate environmental impact assessment procedures for proposed projects likely to

have significant impacts upon biological diversity, providing for suitable information to be made

widely available and for public participation, where appropriate, and encourage the assessment of

the impacts of relevant policies and programmes on biological diversity;

l. Promote, where appropriate, the establishment and strengthening of national inventory, regulation

or management and control systems related to biological resources, at the appropriate level;

m. Take measures to encourage a greater understanding and appreciation of the value of biological

diversity, as manifested both in its component parts and in the ecosystem services provided.

(b) Data and information

15.6. Governments at the appropriate level, consistent with national policies and practices, with the

cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental organizations, and

with the support of indigenous people and their communities, non-governmental organizations and other

groups, including the business and scientific communities, and consistent with the requirements of

international law, should, as appropriate: 7/

a. Regularly collate, evaluate and exchange information on the conservation of biological diversity

and the sustainable use of biological resources;

b. Develop methodologies with a view to undertaking systematic sampling and evaluation on a

national basis of the components of biological diversity identified by means of country studies;

c. Initiate or further develop methodologies and begin or continue work on surveys at the appropriate

level on the status of ecosystems and establish baseline information on biological and genetic

resources, including those in terrestrial, aquatic, coastal and marine ecosystems, as well as

inventories undertaken with the participation of local and indigenous people and their

communities;

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d. Identify and evaluate the potential economic and social implications and benefits of the

conservation and sustainable use of terrestrial and aquatic species in each country, building upon

the results of country studies;

e. Undertake the updating, analysis and interpretation of data derived from the identification,

sampling and evaluation activities described above;

f. Collect, assess and make available relevant and reliable information in a timely manner and in a

form suitable for decision-making at all levels, with the full support and participation of local and

indigenous people and their communities.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

15.7. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and,

as appropriate, intergovernmental organizations, and, with the support of indigenous people and their

communities, non-governmental organizations and other groups, including the business and scientific

communities, and consistent with the requirements of international law, should, as appropriate:

a. Consider the establishment or strengthening of national or international capabilities and networks

for the exchange of data and information of relevance to the conservation of biological diversity

and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources; 7/

b. Produce regularly updated world reports on biodiversity based upon national assessments in all

countries;

c. Promote technical and scientific cooperation in the field of conservation of biological diversity

and the sustainable use of biological and genetic resources. Special attention should be given to

the development and strengthening of national capabilities by means of human resource

development and institution-building, including the transfer of technology and/or development of

research and management facilities, such as herbaria, museums, gene banks, and laboratories,

related to the conservation of biodiversity; 8/

d. Without prejudice to the relevant provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, facilitate

for this chapter the transfer of technologies relevant to the conservation of biological diversity and

the sustainable use of biological resources or technologies that make use of genetic resources and

cause no significant damage to the environment, in conformity with chapter 34, and recognizing

that technology includes biotechnology; 2/ 8/

e. Promote cooperation between the parties to relevant international conventions and action plans

with the aim of strengthening and coordinating efforts to conserve biological diversity and the

sustainable use of biological resources;

f. Strengthen support for international and regional instruments, programmes and action plans

concerned with the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological

resources;

g. Promote improved international coordination of measures for the effective conservation and

management of endangered/non-pest migratory species, including appropriate levels of support for

the establishment and management of protected areas in transboundary locations;

h. Promote national efforts with respect to surveys, data collection, sampling and evaluation, and the

maintenance of gene banks.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

15.8. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this chapter to be about $3.5 billion, including about $1.75 billion from the

international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude

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estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms,

including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

15.9. Specific aspects to be addressed include the need to develop:

a. Efficient methodologies for baseline surveys and inventories, as well as for the

systematic sampling and evaluation of biological resources;

b. Methods and technologies for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable

use of biological resources;

c. Improved and diversified methods for ex situ conservation with a view to the long-term

conservation of genetic resources of importance for research and development.

(c) Human resource development

15.10. There is a need, where appropriate, to:

a. Increase the number and/or make more efficient use of trained personnel in scientific and

technological fields relevant to the conservation of biological diversity and the

sustainable use of biological resources;

b. Maintain or establish programmes for scientific and technical education and training of

managers and professionals, especially in developing countries, on measures for the

identification, conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological

resources;

c. Promote and encourage understanding of the importance of the measures required for the

conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources at all

policy-making and decision-making levels in Governments, business enterprises and

lending institutions, and promote and encourage the inclusion of these topics in

educational programmes.

(d) Capacity-building

15.11. There is a need, where appropriate, to:

a. Strengthen existing institutions and/or establish new ones responsible for the

conservation of biological diversity and to consider the development of mechanisms such

as national biodiversity institutes or centres;

b. Continue to build capacity for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable

use of biological resources in all relevant sectors;

c. Build capacity, especially within Governments, business enterprises and bilateral and

multilateral development agencies, for integrating biodiversity concerns, potential

benefits and opportunity cost calculations into project design, implementation and

evaluation processes, as well as for evaluating the impact on biological diversity of

proposed development projects;

d. Enhance the capacity of governmental and private institutions, at the appropriate level,

responsible for protected area planning and management to undertake intersectoral

coordination and planning with other governmental institutions, non-governmental

organizations and, where appropriate, indigenous people and their communities.

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Agenda 21 – Chapter 16

ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

16.1. Biotechnology is the integration of the new techniques emerging from modern biotechnology with

the well-established approaches of traditional biotechnology. Biotechnology, an emerging

knowledge-intensive field, is a set of enabling techniques for bringing about specific man-made

changes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), or genetic material, in plants, animals and microbial

systems, leading to useful products and technologies. By itself, biotechnology cannot resolve all the

fundamental problems of environment and development, so expectations need to be tempered by

realism. Nevertheless, it promises to make a significant contribution in enabling the development of,

for example, better health care, enhanced food security through sustainable agricultural practices,

improved supplies of potable water, more efficient industrial development processes for transforming

raw materials, support for sustainable methods of afforestation and reforestation, and detoxification

of hazardous wastes. Biotechnology also offers new opportunities for global partnerships, especially

between the countries rich in biological resources (which include genetic resources) but lacking the

expertise and investments needed to apply such resources through biotechnology and the countries

that have developed the technological expertise to transform biological resources so that they serve

the needs of sustainable development. 1/ Biotechnology can assist in the conservation of those

resources through, for example, ex situ techniques. The programme areas set out below seek to foster

internationally agreed principles to be applied to ensure the environmentally sound management of

biotechnology, to engender public trust and confidence, to promote the development of sustainable

applications of biotechnology and to establish appropriate enabling mechanisms, especially within

developing countries, through the following activities:

a. Increasing the availability of food, feed and renewable raw materials;

b. Improving human health;

c. Enhancing protection of the environment;

d. Enhancing safety and developing international mechanisms for cooperation;

e. Establishing enabling mechanisms for the development and the environmentally sound

application of biotechnology.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Increasing the availability of food, feed and renewable raw materials

Basis for action

16.2. To meet the growing consumption needs of the global population, the challenge is not only to

increase food supply, but also to improve food distribution significantly while simultaneously

developing more sustainable agricultural systems. Much of this increased productivity will need to

take place in developing countries. It will require the successful and environmentally safe application

of biotechnology in agriculture, in the environment and in human health care. Most of the investment

in modern biotechnology has been in the industrialized world. Significant new investments and

human resource development will be required in biotechnology, especially in the developing world.

Objectives

16.3. The following objectives are proposed, keeping in mind the need to promote the use of appropriate

safety measures based on programme area D:

a. To increase to the optimum possible extent the yield of major crops, livestock, and

aquaculture species, by using the combined resources of modern biotechnology and

conventional plant/animal/micro-organism improvement, including the more diverse use

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of genetic material resources, both hybrid and original. 2/ Forest product yields should

similarly be increased, to ensure the sustainable use of forests; 3/

b. To reduce the need for volume increases of food, feed and raw materials by improving

the nutritional value (composition) of the source crops, animals and micro-organisms,

and to reduce post-harvest losses of plant and animal products;

c. To increase the use of integrated pest, disease and crop management t echniques to

eliminate overdependence on agrochemicals, thereby encouraging environmentally

sustainable agricultural practices;

d. To evaluate the agricultural potential of marginal lands in comparison with other

potential uses and to develop, where appropriate, systems allowing for sustainable

productivity increases;

e. To expand the applications of biotechnology in forestry, both for increasing yields and

more efficient utilization of forest products and for improving afforestation and

reforestation techniques. Efforts should be concentrated on species and products that are

grown in and are of value particularly for developing countries;

f. To increase the efficiency of nitrogen fixation and mineral absorption by the symbiosis of

higher plants with micro-organisms;

g. To improve capabilities in basic and applied sciences and in the management of complex

interdisciplinary research projects.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

16.4. Governments at the appropriate level, with the assistance of international and regional organizations

and with the support of non-governmental organizations, the private sector and academic and

scientific institutions, should improve both plant and animal breeding and micro-organisms through

the use of traditional and modern biotechnologies, to enhance sustainable agricultural output to

achieve food security, particularly in developing countries, with due regard to the prior identification

of desired characteristics before modification, taking into account the needs of farmers, the socio- economic, cultural and environmental impacts of modifications and the need to promote sustainable

social and economic development, paying particular attention to how the use of biotechnology will

impact on the maintenance of environmental integrity.

16.5. More specifically, these entities should:

a. Improve productivity, nutritional quality and shelf-life of food and animal feed products,

with efforts including work on pre- and post-harvest losses;

b. Further develop resistance to diseases and pests;

c. Develop plant cultivars tolerant and/or resistant to stress from factors such as pests and

diseases and from abiotic causes;

d. Promote the use of underutilized crops of possible future importance for human nutrition

and industrial supply of raw materials;

e. Increase the efficiency of symbiotic processes that assist sustainable agricultural

production;

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f. Facilitate the conservation and safe exchange of plant, animal and microbial germ plasm

by applying risk assessment and management procedures, including improved diagnostic

techniques for detection of pests and diseases by better methods of rapid propagation;

g. Develop improved diagnostic techniques and vaccines for the prevention and spread of

diseases and for rapid assessment of toxins or infectious organisms in products for human

use or livestock feed;

h. Identify more productive strains of fast-growing trees, especially for fuel wood, and

develop rapid propagation methods to aid their wider dissemination and use;

i. Evaluate the use of various biotechnology techniques to improve the yields of fish, algal

and other aquatic species;

j. Promote sustainable agricultural output by strengthening and broadening the capacity and

scope of existing research centres to achieve the necessary critical mass through

encouragement and monitoring of research into the development of biological products

and processes of productive and environmental value that are economically and socially

feasible, while taking safety considerations into account;

k. Promote the integration of appropriate and traditional biotechnologies for the purposes of

cultivating genetically modified plants, rearing healthy animals and protecting forest

genetic resources;

l. Develop processes to increase the availability of materials derived from biotechnology

for use in food, feed and renewable raw materials production.

(b) Data and information

16.6. The following activities should be undertaken:

a. Consideration of comparative assessments of the potential of the different technologies

for food production, together with a system for assessing the possible effects of

biotechnologies on international trade in agricultural products;

b. Examination of the implications of the withdrawal of subsidies and the possible use of

other economic instruments to reflect the environmental costs associated with the

unsustainable use of agrochemicals;

c. Maintenance and development of data banks of information on environmental and health

impacts of organisms to facilitate risk assessment;

d. Acceleration of technology acquisition, transfer and adaptation by developing countries

to support national activities that promote food security.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

16.7. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of relevant international and regional

organizations, should promote the following activities in conformity with international agreements or

arrangements on biological diversity, as appropriate:

a. Cooperation on issues related to conservation of, access to and exchange of germ plasm;

rights associated with intellectual property and informal innovations, including farmers’

and breeders’ rights; access to the benefits of biotechnology; and bio-safety;

b. Promotion of collaborative research programmes, especially in developing countries, to

support activities outlined in this programme area, with particular reference to

cooperation with local and indigenous people and their communities in the conservation

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of biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources, as well as the fostering

of traditional methods and knowledge of such groups in connection with these activities;

c. Acceleration of technology acquisition, transfer and adaptation by developing countries

to support national activities that promote food security, through the development of

systems for substantial and sustainable productivity increases that do not damage or

endanger local ecosystems; 4/

d. Development of appropriate safety procedures based on programme area D, taking

account of ethical considerations.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

16.8. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $5 billion, including about $50 million from the

international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude

estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms,

including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and

programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means*

(c) Human resource development

16.9. Training of competent professionals in the basic and applied sciences at all levels (including

scientific personnel, technical staff and extension workers) is one of the most essential components

of any programme of this kind. Creating awareness of the benefits and risks of biotechnology is

essential. Given the importance of good management of research resources for the successful

completion of large multidisciplinary projects, continuing programmes of formal training for

scientists should include managerial training. Training programmes should also be developed, within

the context of specific projects, to meet regional or national needs for comprehensively trained

personnel capable of using advanced technology to reduce the “brain drain” from developing to

developed countries. Emphasis should be given to

* * * *

* See paras. 16.6 and 16.7.

* * * *

encouraging collaboration between and training of scientists, extension workers and users to produce

integrated systems. Additionally, special consideration should be given to the execution of programmes for

training and exchange of knowledge on traditional biotechnologies and for training on safety procedures.

(d) Capacity-building

16.10. Institutional upgrading or other appropriate measures will be needed to build up technical,

managerial, planning and administrative capacities at the national level to support the activities in

this programme area. Such measures should be backed up by international, scientific, technical and

financial assistance adequate to facilitate technical cooperation and raise the capacities of the

developing countries. Programme area E contains further details.

B. Improving human health

Basis for action

16.11. The improvement of human health is one of the most important objectives of development. The

deterioration of environmental quality, notably air, water and soil pollution owing to toxic chemicals,

hazardous wastes, radiation and other sources, is a matter of growing concern. This degradation of

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the environment resulting from inadequate or inappropriate development has a direct negative effect

on human health. Malnutrition, poverty, poor human settlements, lack of good-quality potable water

and inadequate sanitation facilities add to the problems of communicable and non-communicable

diseases. As a consequence, the health and well-being of people are exposed to increasing pressures.

Objectives

16.12. The main objective of this programme area is to contribute, through the environmentally sound

application of biotechnology to an overall health programme, to: 5/

a. Reinforce or inaugurate (as a matter of urgency) programmes to help combat major

communicable diseases;

b. Promote good general health among people of all ages;

c. Develop and improve programmes to assist in specific treatment of and protection from

major non-communicable diseases;

d. Develop and strengthen appropriate safety procedures based on programme area D,

taking account of ethical considerations;

e. Create enhanced capabilities for carrying out basic and applied research and for

managing interdisciplinary research.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

16.13. Governments at the appropriate level, with the assistance of international and regional

organizations, academic and scientific institutions, and the pharmaceutical industry, should, taking

into account appropriate safety and ethical considerations:

a. Develop national and international programmes for identifying and targeting those

populations of the world most in need of improvement in general health and protection

from diseases;

b. Develop criteria for evaluating the effectiveness and the benefits and risks of the

proposed activities;

c. Establish and enforce screening, systematic sampling and evaluation procedures for drugs

and medical technologies, with a view to barring the use of those that are unsafe for the

purposes of experimentation; ensure that drugs and technologies relating to reproductive

health are safe and effective and take account of ethical considerations;

d. Improve, systematically sample and evaluate drinking-water quality by introducing

appropriate specific measures, including diagnosis of water-borne pathogens and

pollutants;

e. Develop and make widely available new and improved vaccines against major

communicable diseases that are efficient and safe and offer protection with a minimum

number of doses, including intensifying efforts directed at the vaccines needed to combat

common diseases of children;

f. Develop biodegradable delivery systems for vaccines that eliminate the need for present

multiple-dose schedules, facilitate better coverage of the population and reduce the costs

of immunization;

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g. Develop effective biological control agents against dis ease-transmitting vectors, such as

mosquitoes and resistant variants, taking account of environmental protection

considerations;

h. Using the tools provided by modern biotechnology, develop, inter alia, improved

diagnostics, new drugs and improved treatments and delivery systems;

i. Develop the improvement and more effective utilization of medicinal plants and other

related sources;

j. Develop processes to increase the availability of materials derived from biotechnology,

for use in improving human health.

(b) Data and information

16.14. The following activities should be undertaken:

a. Research to assess the comparative social, environmental and financial costs and benefits

of different technologies for basic and reproductive health care within a framework of

universal safety and ethical considerations;

b. Development of public education programmes directed at decision makers and the

general public to encourage awareness and understanding of the relative benefits and

risks of modern biotechnology, according to ethical and cultural considerations.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

16.15. Governments at the appropriate levels, with the support of relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Develop and strengthen appropriate safety procedures based on programme area D,

taking account of ethical considerations;

b. Support the development of national programmes, particularly in developing countries,

for improvements in general health, especially protection from major communicable

diseases, common diseases of children and disease-transmitting factors.

Means of implementation

16.16. To achieve the above goals, the activities need to be implemented with urgency if progress

towards the control of major communicable diseases is to be achieved by the beginning of the next

century. The spread of some diseases to all regions of the world calls for global measures. For more

localized diseases, regional or national policies will be more appropriate. The achievement of goals

calls for:

a. Continuous international commitment;

b. National priorities with a defined time-frame;

c. Scientific and financial input at global and national levels.

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

16.17. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implement ing the activities of this programme to be about $14 billion, including about $130 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

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16.18. Well-coordinated multidisciplinary efforts involving cooperation between scientists, financial

institutions and industries will be required. At the global level, this may mean collaboration between

research institutions in different countries, with funding at the intergovernment al level, possibly

supported by similar collaboration at the national level. Research and development support will also

need to be strengthened, together with the mechanisms for providing the transfer of relevant

technology.

(c) Human resource development

16.19. Training and technology transfer is needed at the global level, with regions and countries having

access to, and participation in exchange of, information and expertise, particularly indigenous or

traditional knowledge and related biotechnology. It is essential to create or enhance endogenous

capabilities in developing countries to enable them to participate actively in the processes of

biotechnology production. The training of personnel could be undertaken at three levels:

a. That of scientists required for basic and product-oriented research;

b. That of health personnel (to be trained in the safe use of new products) and of science

managers required for complex intermultidisciplinary research;

c. That of tertiary-level technical workers required for delivery in the field.

(d) Capacity-building*

C. Enhancing protection of the environment

Basis for action

16.20. Environmental protection is an integral component of sustainable development. The environment

is threatened in all its biotic and abiotic components: animals, plants, microbes and ecosystems

comprising biological diversity; water, soil and air, which form the physical components of habitats

and ecosystems; and all the interactions between the components of biodiversity and their sustaining

habitats and ecosystems. With the continued increase in the use of chemicals, energy and non- renewable resources by an

* * * *

* See programme area E.

* * * *

expanding global population, associated environmental problems will also increase. Despite increasing

efforts to prevent waste accumulation and to promote recycling, the amount of environmental damage

caused by overconsumption, the quantities of waste generated and the degree of unsustainable land use

appear likely to continue growing.

16.21. The need for a diverse genetic pool of plant, animal and microbial germ plasm for sustainable

development is well established. Biotechnology is one of many tools that can play an important role

in supporting the rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems and landscapes. This may be done through

the development of new techniques for reforestation and afforestation, germ plasm conservation, and

cultivation of new plant varieties. Biotechnology can also contribute to the study of the effects

exerted on the remaining organisms and on ot her organisms by organisms introduced into

ecosystems.

Objectives

16.22. The aim of this programme is to prevent, halt and reverse environmental degradation through the

appropriate use of biotechnology in conjunction with other technologies, while supporting safety

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procedures as an integral component of the programme. Specific objectives include the inauguration

as soon as possible of specific programmes with specific targets:

a. To adopt production processes making optimal use of natural resources, by recycling

biomass, recovering energy and minimizing waste generation; 6/

b. To promote the use of biotechnologies, with emphasis on bio-remediation of land and

water, waste treatment, soil conservation, reforestation, afforestation and land

rehabilitation; 7/ 8/

c. To apply biotechnologies and their products to protect environmental integrity with a

view to long-term ecological security.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

16.23. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of relevant international and regional

organizations, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and academic and scientific

institutions, should:

a. Develop environmentally sound alternatives and improvements for environmentally

damaging production processes;

b. Develop applications to minimize the requirement for unsustainable synthetic chemical

input and to maximize the use of environmentally appropriate products, including natural

products (see programme area A);

c. Develop processes to reduce waste generation, treat waste before disposal and make use

of biodegradable materials;

d. Develop processes to recover energy and provide renewable energy sources, animal feed

and raw materials from recycling organic waste and biomass;

e. Develop processes to remove pollutants from the environment, including accidental oil

spills, where conventional techniques are not available or are expensive, inefficient or

inadequate;

f. Develop processes to increase the availability of planting materials, particularly

indigenous varieties, for use in afforestation and reforestation and to improve sustainable

yields from forests;

g. Develop applications to increase the availability of stress-tolerant planting material for

land rehabilitation and soil conservation;

h. Promote the use of integrated pest management bas ed on the judicious use of bio-control

agents;

i. Promote the appropriate use of bio-fertilizers within national fertilizer programmes;

j. Promote the use of biotechnologies relevant to the conservation and scientific study of

biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources;

k. Develop easily applicable technologies for the treatment of sewage and organic waste;

l. Develop new technologies for rapid screening of organisms for useful biological

properties;

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m. Promote new biotechnologies for tapping mineral resources in an environmentally

sustainable manner.

(b) Data and information

16.24. Steps should be taken to increase access both to existing information about biotechnology and to

facilities based on global databases.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

16.25. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of relevant international and regional

organizations, should:

a. Strengthen research, training and development capabilities, particularly in developing

countries, to support the activities outlined in this programme area;

b. Develop mechanisms for scaling up and disseminating environmentally sound

biotechnologies of high environmental importance, especially in the short term, even

though those biotechnologies may have limited commercial potential;

c. Enhance cooperation, including transfer of biotechnology, between participating

countries for capacity-building;

d. Develop appropriate safety procedures based on programme area D, taking account of

ethical considerations.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

16.26. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $1 billion, including about $10 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means*

(c) Human resource development

16.27. The activities for this programme area will increase the demand for trained personnel. Support for

existing training programmes needs to be increased, for example, at the university and technical

institute level, as well as the exchange of trained personnel between countries and regions. New and

additional training programmes also need to be developed, for example, for technical and support

personnel. There is also an urgent need to improve the level of understanding of biological principles

and their policy implications among decision makers in Governments, and financial and other

institutions.

(d) Capacity-building

16.28. Relevant institutions will need to have the responsibility for undertaking, and the capacity

(political, financial and workforce) to undertake, the above-mentioned activities and to be dynamic in

response to new biotechnological developments (see programme area E).

* * * *

* See paras. 16.23-16.25 above.

* * * *

D. Enhancing safety and developing international mechanisms for cooperation

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Basis for action

16.29. There is a need for further development of internationally agreed principles on risk assessment and

management of all aspects of biotechnology, which should build upon those developed at the national

level. Only when adequate and transparent safety and border-control procedures are in place will the

community at large be able to derive maximum benefit from, and be in a much better position to

accept the potential benefits and risks of, biotechnology. Several fundamental principles could

underlie many of these safety procedures, including primary consideration of the organism, building

on the principle of familiarity, applied in a flexible framework, taking into account national

requirements and recognizing that the logical progression is to start with a step -by-step and case-by- case approach, but also recognizing that experience has shown that in many instances a more

comprehensive approach should be used, based on the experiences of the first period, leading, inter

alia, to streamlining and categorizing; complementary consideration of risk assessment and risk

management; and classification into contained use or release to the environment.

Objectives

16.30. The aim of this programme area is to ensure safety in biotechnology development, application,

exchange and transfer through international agreement on principles to be applied on risk assessment

and management, with particular reference to health and environmental considerations, including the

widest possible public participation and taking account of ethical considerations.

Activities

16.31. The proposed activities for this programme area call for close international cooperation. They

should build upon planned or existing activities to accelerate the environmentally sound application

of biotechnology, especially in developing countries.

(a) Management-related activities

16.32. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of relevant international and regional

organizations, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and academic and scientific

institutions, should:

a. Make the existing safety procedures widely available by collecting the existing

information and adapting it to the specific needs of different countries and regions;

b. Further develop, as necessary, the existing safety procedures to promote scientific

development and categorization in the areas of risk assessment and risk management

(information requirements; databases; procedures for assessing risks and conditions of

release; establishment of safety conditions; monitoring and inspections, taking account of

ongoing national, regional and international initiatives and avoiding duplication wherever

possible);

c. Compile, update and develop compatible safety procedures into a framework of

internationally agreed principles as a basis for guidelines to be applied on safety in

biotechnology, including consideration of the need for and feasibility of an international

agreement, and promote information exchange as a basis for further development,

drawing on the work already undertaken by international or other expert bodies;

d. Undertake training programmes at the national and regional levels on the application of

the proposed technical guidelines;

e. Assist in exchanging information about the procedures required for safe handling and risk

management and about the conditions of release of the products of biotechnology, and

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cooperate in providing immediate assistance in cases of emergencies that may arise in

conjunction with the use of biotechnology products.

(b) Data and information*

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

16.33. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of the relevant international and regional

organizations, should raise awareness of the relative benefits and risks of biotechnology.

16.34. Further activities should include the following (see also para. 16.32):

a. Organizing one or more regional meetings between countries to identify further practical steps to

facilitate international cooperation in bio-safety;

b. Establishing an international network incorporating national, regional and global contact points;

c. Providing direct assistance upon request through the international network, using information

networks, databases and information procedures;

d. Considering the need for and feasibility of internationally agreed guidelines on safety in

biotechnology releases, including risk assessment and risk management, and considering studying

the feasibility of guidelines which could facilitate national legislation on liability and

compensation.

* * * *

* See paras. 16.32 and 16.33.

* * * *

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

16.35. The UNCED secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programmes to be about $2 million from the international community on grant

or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not

been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non- concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments

decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means*

(c) Human resource development*

(d) Capacity-building

16.36. Adequate international technical and financial assistance should be provided and technical

cooperation to developing countries facilitated in order to build up technical, managerial, planning

and administrative capacities at the national level to support the activities in this programme area

(see also programme area E).

E. Establishing enabling mechanisms for the development and the environmentally sound application

of biotechnology

Basis for action

16.37. The accelerated development and application of biotechnologies, particularly in developing

countries, will require a major effort to build up institutional capacities at the national and regional

levels. In developing countries, enabling factors such as training capacity, know-how, research and

development facilities and funds, industrial building capacity, capital (including venture capital)

protection of intellectual property rights, and expertise in areas including marketing research,

technology assessment, socio-economic assessment and safety assessment are frequently

inadequate. Efforts will therefore need to be made to build up capacities in these and other areas and

to match such efforts with appropriate levels of financial support. There is therefore a need to

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strengthen the endogenous capacities of developing countries by means of new international

initiatives to support research in order to speed up the development and application of both new and

conventional biotechnologies to serve the needs of sustainable development at the local, national

and regional levels. National mechanisms to allow for informed comment by the public with regard

to biotechnology research and application should be part of the process.

* * * *

* See para. 16.32.

* * * *

16.38. Some activities at the national, regional and global levels already address the issues outlined in

programme areas A, B, C and D, as well as the provisioin of advice to individual countries on the

development of national guidelines and systems for the implementation of those guidelines. These

activities are generally uncoordinated, however, involving many different organizations, priorities,

constituencies, time-scales, funding sources and resource constraints. There is a need for a much

more cohesive and coordinated approach to harness available resources in the most effective

manner. As with most new technologies, research in biotechnology and the application of its

findings could have significant positive and negative socio-economic as well as cultural impacts.

These impacts should be carefully identified in the earliest phases of the development of

biotechnology in order to enable appropriate management of the consequences of transferring

biotechnology.

Objectives

16.39. The objectives are as follows:

a. To promote the development and application of biotechnologies, with special

emphasis on developing countries, by:

i. Enhancing existing efforts at the national, regional and global levels;

ii. Providing the necessary support for biotechnology, particularly research and

product development, at the national, regional and international levels;

iii. Raising public awareness regarding the relative beneficial aspects of and

risks related to biotechnology, to contribute to sustainable development;

iv. Helping to create a favourable climate for investments, industrial capacity- building and distribution/marketing;

v. Encouraging the exchange of scientists among all countries and

discouraging the “brain drain”;

vi. Recognizing and fostering the traditional methods and knowledge of

indigenous peoples and their communities and ensuring the opportunity for

their participation in the economic and commercial benefits arising from

developments in biotechnology; 9/

b. To identify ways and means of enhancing current efforts, building wherever possible

on existing enabling mechanisms, particularly regional, to determine the precise

nature of the needs for additional initiatives, particularly in respect of developing

countries, and to develop appropriate response strategies, including proposals for any

new international mechanisms;

c. To establish or adapt appropriate mechanisms for safety appraisal and risk

assessment at the local, regional and international levels, as appropriate.

Activities

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(a) Management-related activities

16.40. Governments at the appropriate level, with the support of international and regional organizations,

the private sector, non-governmental organizations and academic and scientific institutions, should:

a. Develop policies and mobilize additional resources to facilitate greater access to the new

biotechnologies, particularly by and among developing countries;

b. Implement programmes to create greater awareness of the potential and relative benefits and risks

of the environmentally sound application of biotechnology among the public and key decision

makers;

c. Undertake an urgent review of existing enabling mechanisms, programmes and activities at the

national, regional and global levels to identify strengths, weaknesses and gaps, and to assess the

priority needs of developing countries;

d. Undertake an urgent follow-up and critical review to identify ways and means of strengthening

endogenous capacities within and among developing countries for the environmentally sound

application of biot echnology, including, as a first step, ways to improve existing mechanisms,

particularly at the regional level, and, as a subsequent step, the consideration of possible new

international mechanisms, such as regional biotechnology centres;

e. Develop strategic plans for overcoming targeted constraints by means of appropriate research,

product development and marketing;

f. Establish additional quality-assurance standards for biotechnology applications and products,

where necessary.

(b) Data and information

16.40. The following activities should be undertaken: facilitation of access to existing information

dissemination systems, especially among developing countries; improvement of such access where

appropriate; and consideration of the development of a directory of information.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

16.41. Governments at the appropriate level, with the assistance of international and regional

organizations, should develop appropriate new initiatives to identify priority areas for research

based on specific problems and facilitate access to new biotechnologies, particularly by and among

developing countries, among relevant undertakings within those countries, in order to strengthen

endogenous capacities and to support the building of research and institutional capacity in those

countries.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

16.42. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing

the activities of this programme to be about $5 million from the international community on grant or

concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been

reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non- concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments

decide upon for implementation.

(b) Scientific and technological means

16.43. Workshops, symposia, seminars and other exchanges among the scientific community at the

regional and global levels, on specific priority themes, will need to be organized, making full use of

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the existing scientific and technological manpower in each country for bringing about such

exchanges.

(c) Human resource development

16.44. Personnel development needs will need to be identified and additional training programmes

developed at the national, regional and global levels, especially in developing countries. These

should be supported by increased training at all levels, graduate, postgraduate and post-doctoral, as

well as by the training of technicians and support staff, with particular reference to the generation of

trained manpower in consultant services, design, engineering and marketing research. Training

programmes for lecturers training scientists and technologists in advanced research institutions in

different countries throughout the world will also need to be developed, and systems giving

appropriate rewards, incentives and recognition to scientists and technologists will need to be

instituted (see para. 16.44). Conditions of service will also need to be improved at the national level

in developing countries to encourage and nurture trained manpower with a view to retaining that

manpower locally. Society should be informed of the social and cultural impact of the development

and application of biotechnology.

(d) Capacity-building

16.45. Biotechnology research and development is undertaken both under highly sophisticated conditions

and at the practical level in many countries. Efforts will be needed to ensure that the necessary

infrastructure facilities for research, extension and technology activities are available on a

decentralized basis. Global and regional collaboration for basic and applied research and

development will also need to be further enhanced and every effort should be made to ensure that

existing national and regional facilities are fully utilized. Such institutions already exist in some

countries and it should be possible to make use of them for training purposes and joint research

projects. Strengthening of universities, technical schools and local research institutions for the

development of biotechnologies and extension services for their application will need to be

developed, especially in developing countries.

Agenda 21 – Chapter 17

PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS OF SEAS, INCLUDING

ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND COASTAL AREAS AND THE

PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING

RESOURCES

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17.1. The marine environment – including the oceans and all seas and adjacent coastal areas – forms an

integrated whole that is an essential component of the global life-support system and a positive asset

that presents opportunities for sustainable development. International law, as reflected in the

provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1/, 2/ referred to in this chapter of

Agenda 21, sets forth rights and obligations of States and provides the international basis upon which

to pursue the protection and sustainable development of the marine and coastal environment and its

resources. This requires new approaches to marine and coastal area management and development, at

the national, subregional, regional and global levels, approaches that are integrated in content and are

precautionary and anticipatory in ambit, as reflected in the following programme areas: 3/

a. Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas, including exclusive

economic zones;

b. Marine environmental protection;

c. Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources of the high seas;

d. Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources under national jurisdiction;

e. Addressing critical uncertainties for the management of the marine environment and

climate change;

f. Strengthening international, including regional, cooperation and coordination;

g. Sustainable development of small islands.

17.2. The implementation by developing countries of the activities set forth below shall be commensurate

with their individual technological and financial capacities and priorities in allocating resources for

development needs and ultimately depends on the technology transfer and financial resources

required and made available to them.

PROGRAMME AREAS

A. Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including

exclusive economic zones

Basis for action

17.3. The coastal area contains diverse and productive habitats important for human settlements,

development and local subsistence. More than half the world’s population lives within 60 km of the

shoreline, and this could rise to three quarters by the year 2020. Many of the world’s poor are

crowded in coastal areas. Coastal resources are vital for many local communities and indigenous

people. The exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is also an important marine area where the States

manage the development and conservation of natural resources for the benefit of their people. For

small island States or countries, these are the areas most available for development activities.

17.4. Despite national, subregional, regional and global efforts, current approaches to the management of

marine and coastal resources have not always proved capable of achieving sustainable development,

and coastal resources and the coastal environment are being rapidly degraded and eroded in many

parts of the world.

Objectives

17.5. Coastal States commit themselves to integrated management and sustainable development of coastal

areas and the marine environment under their national jurisdiction. To this end, it is necessary to,

inter alia:

a. Provide for an integrated policy and decision-making process, including all involved

sectors, to promote compatibility and a balance of uses;

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b. Identify existing and projected uses of coastal areas and their interactions;

c. Concentrate on well-defined issues concerning coastal management;

d. Apply preventive and precautionary approaches in project planning and implementation,

including prior assessment and systematic observation of the impacts of major projects;

e. Promote the development and application of methods, such as national resource and

environmental accounting, that reflect changes in value resulting from uses of coastal and

marine areas, including pollution, marine erosion, loss of resources and habitat

destruction;

f. Provide access, as far as possible, for concerned individuals, groups and organizations to

relevant information and opportunities for consultation and participation in planning and

decision-making at appropriate levels.

Activities

(a) Management-related activities

17.6. Each coastal State should consider establishing, or where necessary strengthening, appropriate

coordinating mechanisms (such as a high-level policy planning body) for integrated management and

sustainable development of coastal and marine areas and their resources, at both the local and

national levels. Such mechanisms should include consultation, as appropriate, with the academic and

private sectors, non-governmental organizations, local communities, resource user groups, and

indigenous people. Such national coordinating mechanisms could provide, inter alia, for:

a. Preparation and implementation of land and water use and siting policies;

b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable

development plans and programmes at appropriate levels;

c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including eroded zones, physical

processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for management;

d. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major

projects, including the systematic incorporation of results in decision-making;

e. Contingency plans for human induced and natural disasters, including likely effects of

potential climate change and sealevel rise, as well as contingency plans for degradation

and pollution of anthropogenic origin, including spills of oil and other materials;

f. Improvement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and

treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluents;

g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the

objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and

the marine environment are met;

h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical habitats;

i. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements,

agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal area;

j. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative employment;

k. Human resource development and training;

l. Public education, awareness and information programmes;

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m. Promoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practices;

n. Development and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.

17.7. Coastal States, with the support of international organizations, upon request, should undertake

measures to maintain biological diversity and productivity of marine species and habitats under

national jurisdiction. Inter alia, these measures might include: surveys of marine biodiversity,

inventories of endangered species and critical coastal and marine habitats; establishment and

management of protected areas; and support of scientific research and dissemination of its results.

(b) Data and information

17.8. Coastal States, where necessary, should improve their capacity to collect, analyse, assess and use

information for sustainable use of resources, including environmental impacts of activities affecting

the coastal and marine areas. Information for management purposes should receive priority support in

view of the intensity and magnitude of the changes occurring in the coastal and marine areas. To this

end, it is necessary to, inter alia:

a. Develop and maintain databases for assessment and management of coastal areas and all

seas and their resources;

b. Develop socio-economic and environmental indicators;

c. Conduct regular environmental assessment of the state of the environment of coastal and

marine areas;

d. Prepare and maintain profiles of coastal area resources, activities, uses, habitats and

protected areas based on the criteria of sustainable development;

e. Exchange information and data.

17.9. Cooperation with developing countries, and, where applicable, subregional and regional mechanisms,

should be strengthened to improve their capacities to achieve the above.

(c) International and regional cooperation and coordination

17.10. The role of international cooperation and coordination on a bilateral basis and, where applicable,

within a subregional, interregional, regional or global framework, is to support and supplement

national efforts of coastal States to promote integrated management and sustainable development of

coastal and marine areas.

17.11. States should cooperate, as appropriate, in the preparation of national guidelines for integrated

coastal zone management and development, drawing on existing experience. A global conference to

exchange experience in the field could be held before 1994.

Means of implementation

(a) Financing and cost evaluation

17.12. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of

implementing the activities of this programme to be about $6 billion including about $50 million

from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of- magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial

terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies

and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

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(b) Scientific and technological means

17.13. States should cooperate in the development of necessary coastal systematic observation, research

and information management systems. They should provide access to and transfer environmentally

safe technologies and methodologies for sustainable development of coastal and marine areas to

developing countries. They should also develop technologies and endogenous scientific and

technological capacities.

17.14. International organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, as appropriate, should support

coastal States, upon request, in these efforts, as indicated above, devoting special attention to

developing countries.

(c) Human resource development

17.15. Coastal States should promote and facilitate the organization of education and training in

integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development for scientists, technologists,

managers (including community-based managers) and users, leaders, indigenous peoples, fisherfolk,

women and youth, among others. Management and development, as well as environmental protection

concerns and local planning issues, should be incorporated in educational curricula and public

awareness campaigns, with due regard to traditional ecological knowledge and socio-cultural values.

17.16. International organizations, whet her subregional, regional or global, as appropriate, should support

coastal States, upon request, in the areas indicated above, devoting special attention to developing

countries.

(d) Capacity-building

17.17. Full cooperation should be extended, upon request, to coastal States in their capacity-building

efforts and, where appropriate, capacity-building should be included in bilateral and multilateral

development cooperation. Coastal States may consider, inter alia:

a. Ensuring capacity-building at the local level;

b. Consulting on coastal and marine issues with local administrations, the business

community, the academic sector, resource user groups and the general public;

c. Coordinating sectoral programmes while building capacity;

d. Identifying existing and potential capabilities, facilities and needs for human resources

development and scientific and technological infrastructure;

e. Developing scientific and technological means and research;

f. Promoting and facilitating human resource development and education;

g. Supporting “centres of excellence” in integrated coastal and marine resource

management;

h. Supporting pilot demonstration programmes and projects in integrated coastal and marine

management.

B. Marine environmental protection

Basis for action

17.18. Degradation of the marine environment can result from a wide range of sources. Land-based

sources contribute 70 per cent of marine pollution, while maritime transport and dumping-at-sea

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activities contribute 10 per cent each. The contaminants that pose the greatest threat to the marine

environment are, in variable order of importance and depending on differing national or regional

situations, sewage, nutrients, synthetic organic compounds, sediments, litter and plastics, metals,

radionuclides, oil/hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of the polluting

substances originating from land-based sources are of particular concern to the marine environment

since they exhibit at the same time toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the food chain. There

is currently no global scheme to address marine pollution from land-based sources.

17.19. Degradation of the marine environment can also result from a wide range of activities on land.

Human settlements, land use, construction of coastal infrastructure, agriculture, forestry, urban

development, tourism and industry can affect the marine environment. Coastal erosion and siltation

are of particular concern.

17.20. Marine pollution is also caused by shipping and sea-based activities. Approximately 600,000 tons

of oil ent